Biome and Aquatic Ecosystems

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Why are plants used to define and area?

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134 Terms

1

Why are plants used to define and area?

The are immobile and easily visible

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2

What supports more vegetation?

Warmer climates and increased rainfall

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3

Where are tundras found?

Areas ow low temp and precip, high latitudes

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4

Arctic Tundra vs Alpine tundra

Arctic: High latitude

Alpine: High elevation

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5
<p>What biome exists in the highlighted area?</p>

What biome exists in the highlighted area?

Tundra

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6

What is temperature range of the tundra?

-35-12 degree C

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7

Term for permanently frozen spoil

permafrost

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8

What is peat soil?

Partially decomposed vegetation cause by low decomp rate, occurs in tundra

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9

What are some vertebrates of the tundra?

Arctic fox, caribou, snowshoe hare, snowy owl, ect.

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10

Vertebrates characteristic of an ALPINE tundra

Mountain goat, pika

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11

Characters of Taiga

Forested, high elevation, discontinuous permafrost

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12

Where are taigas located ?

Areas of Russia and Canada

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13

How do trees survive in taiga

Narrow shape of leaves for water retention, unique shape of tree

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14

Characteristic evergreens of taiga

fir, spruce, pine

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15

Why is fire important in the taiga?

Seed release from cones

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16

Why is nitrogen limiting in taiga

much of it is tied up in undecomposed matter

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17

Vertebrates of taiga

elk, lynx, moose, marten

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18

Characters of temperate forests

lower latitudes, can be deciduous coniferous or mixed, fire important

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19

What is a boreal-mixed forest ecotone

Gradation of boreal into northern temperate coniferous forests

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20
<p>What is the forest in the map?</p>

What is the forest in the map?

Jack Pine Forest

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21

Where are montane coniferous forests located?

Rockies, Sierra Nevada, Cascade

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22

Trees characteristic of montane coniferous forest

lodgepole, mt. hemlock, red fir, giant sequoia, ponderosa pine, costal redwoods

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23

What is niche partitioning?

microclimate specializations

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24

Where are the only primary growth in the US?

High in Appalachian mt.

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25

Plant adaptions for rainforest vegetation

Large leaf tips, drip tips

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26

What allows for rapid recycling of nutrients in rainforests?

Higher microdiversity

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27

What are plants the root on the surface of other plants? Example?

Epiphytes, Bromeliads

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28

Parasitic plant that leeches nutrients from host plants

Strangler vines

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29

What are buttress roots?

Large wide roots on shallowly rooted trees

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30

Characteristic of Heliconia

cup shaped, collects rainwater that hummingbirds collect, provides roost for tent bat

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31

Tropical Rainforest vs Cloud Rainforest

Tropical: ~ <10 latitude

Cloud: elevation of ~ 1000-2500m

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32

What is unique about leaf cutter ants

They take leaves to colony to decompose and provide nutrients to fungi that the plants eat (mutualism)

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33

Latitude of deserts

~20-30 N and S

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34

Max temps in desert

50C

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35

Hot vs Cool Desert

Hot- created by rising air from rainforest that dries and heats as it falls

Cool- created by a rain shadow

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36

Whats unique about kangaroo rat?

Creates metabolic water

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37

Indicator species of Great Basin

Sagebrush

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38

Indicator species of Chihuahuan

Creosote bush

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39

Indicator species of Tallgrass prairie

Big bluestem

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40

Indicator species of Sonoran

Saguaro cactus

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41

Indicator species of deciduous temperate forest

hickory, oak

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42

Indicator species of Mojave

Joshua tree

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43

Indicator species of mixed grass prairie

Little bluestem

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44

Indicator species of shortgrass prairie

Blue gramma

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45
<p>Desert?</p>

Desert?

Sonoran Desert

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46
<p>Desert?</p>

Desert?

Mojave

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47
<p>Desert?</p>

Desert?

Chihuahuan

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48

What county makes up stopover point for migratory bird

Woods Co. (salt flats) and Alfalfa Co. (great salt plains)

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49

What is the largest biome in N.A.? Historical percentage vs percentage now?

Temperate Grassland, 42% → 12%

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50

How is the hydrological cycle powered?

solar radiation

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51

Process where plants lose water through stomata

transpiration

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52

Ways water is released into atmosphere

transpiration, respiration, evaporation

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53

Percentage of water that is freshwater

2.6

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54

Percentage of freshwater held as ice

80%

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55

Where is there maximum light penetration, and primary productivity in the water column

Photic/Euphotic Zone

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56

Water zone where only blue and green light penetrates

Twilight/Dysphotic Zone

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57

Water where no no light or photosynthesis occurs

Aphotic zone

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58

What is the maximum depth of light penetration?

100m

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59

Area in water where there is a significant drop in temp, what depth does it occur

Thermocline, 120-240m

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60

What nutrients are limiting depth decreases

Nitrate and phosphate

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61

Ocean Zone of highest primary productivity, shallow water, high light penetration

Neritic zone

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62

Zone prone to evaporation and higher temps

Littoral zone

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63

Range of continental slope

700-4000 m

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64

Range of abyssal zone

4000-6000 m

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65

Zone that is >6000m

Hadal zone

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66

How deep can trenches get

36,000 ft

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67

What is the term for cycling nutrient rich mud caused by wind

Upwelling

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68

What causes “Red Tides”

Dinoflagellates containing xanthophyll

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69

What causes ciguatera poisoning

Consuming something that has eaten another organism that has consumed dinoflagellates (biological concentration)

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70

Charcters of Pfisteria

cyst form turns to trophozoite, malignant or benign, can cause large fish die off, 24 morphological types

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71

What is equivalent to tropical forests in the ocean

Coral reefs

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72

How much of calcium is taken up by coral reefs, what form?

1/2 that enters the ocean, CaCO3

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73

How much carbon do coral reefs remove/year

700 billion Kg

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74

What is coral

Cnideria (polyp)

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75

What do coral use to bring in food

stinging nematocyst

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76

What do dinoflagellates provide to coral?

nutrients, CO2

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77

What type of algae helps in solidifying CaCO2 and strengthens exoskeleton

Coralline

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78

What temperature range for coral?

20-35C

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79

What are most coral in regards to salt content, what does this make them vulnerable to

Stenohaline (tolerable to narrow range), runoff

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80

Why are coral usually in clear clen water?

Sediment effects light penetration, zooxanthellae shedding, and pollutes mucus string

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81

What is the most common reef?

Fringing

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82

Characteristic of fringing reef

Very close to shore, very shallow water, most vulnerable

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83

Characters of a barrier reef

Usually located near a lagoon, can be near a fringing reef. protected by lagoon separating it from mainland

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84

Characters of atoll

Occurs around volcano, volcano sinks into ocean, rarest of reefs

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85
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86

Deep sea zone above 200 m

Photic/ epipelagic zone

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87

Deep sea zone from 200m to ~1000m

Mesopelagic zone

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88

Deep sea zone 1000m-4000m

Bathypelagic zone

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89

Deep sea zone 4000m-6000m

Abyssopelagic zone

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90

Deep sea zone >6000m

Hadopelagic zone

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91

How deep is Mariana trench?

36,070ft

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92

Where does food come from in deep sea

Dense water carrying food from above

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93

Where does oxygen come from in deep sea?

Overturning along the great ocean conveyor

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94

What is the enzyme that produces light in photophores

Luciferase

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95

How do deep water organisms control light production

controlling blood circulation

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96

Purpose of photophores

attracting food and mates

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97

Where are many photophores located?

Along ventral surface

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98

What is counterillumination

photophores on ventral that break up silhouette

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99

Adaptions of mesopelagic zone fish

small size, slower metabolic rate, less food intake, large eyes, large mouth

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100

What is the phenomenon of very large fish in deep sea

Abyssal gigantism

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