AP Lit Vocab over Summer

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Allegory

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127 Terms

1

Allegory

A story, poem, or picture that can interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, typically a moral or political one

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2

Alliteration

The occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of adjacent or closely connected words

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3

Allusion

An expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it explicitly; an indirect or passing reference

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4

Ambiguity

The quality of being open to more than one interpretation; inexactness

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5

Anaphora

The use of a word referring to or replacing a word used earlier in a sentence, to avoid repetition

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6

Antecedent

A thing or event that existed before or logically precedes another

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7

Antithesis

A person or thing that is the direct opposite of someone or something else

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8

Aphorism

A pithy observation that contains a general truth, “If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it”

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9

Apostrophe

A punctuation mark "( ‘ ) used to indicate either possession or the omission of letters or numbers

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10

Assonance

In poetry, the repetition of the sound of a vowel or dipthong in non rhyming stressed syllables near enough to each other for the echo to be discernible

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11

Asyndetion

The omission or absence of a conjunction between parts of a sentence

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12

Atmosphere

The pervading tone or mood of a place, situation, or work of art

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13

Attitude

A settled way of thinking or feeling about someone or something, typically one that is reflected in a person’s behavior

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14

Ballad

A slow sentimental or romantic song; a poem or song narrating a story in short stanzas. Traditional ballads are typically of unknown authorship having passed orally

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15

Bildungsroman

A novel dealing with one person’s formative years or spiritual education

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16

Blank verse

Verse without rhyme, especially that which used iambic pentameter

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17

Caesura

Metrical pause or break in a verse where one phrase ends and another phase begins; only interruption or break

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18

Dynamic Character

Changes throughout the story

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19

Static Character

Doesn’t change throughout the story

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20

Round Character

Lifelike figures with complex, multifaced personalities. They’re deep

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21

Flat Character

Lacks complexity in several facets

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22

Direct Characterization

Literary device used to tell conclusive details about a character to the reader with little to no ambiguity. Fact about a character

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23

Indirect

Literary device that reveals details about a character without stating them explicitly

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24

Chiasmus

Grammatical constructions, or concepts are repeated in reverse order, in the same or a modified form

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25

Clause

A group of words containing a subject and predicate and functioning as a member of a complex or compound sentence

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26

Colloquialism

A word or phrase that is not formal or literary, typically one used in ordinary or familiar conversation

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27

Conceit

A fanciful expression in writing or speech; an elaborate metaphor

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28

External conflict

Conflict within literature that occurs outside of the main character

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29

Internal conflict

Conflict within literature that occurs inside of a main character, when a character experiences tensions within themselves

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30

Connotation

An idea or feeling that a word invokes in addition to its literal or primary menaing

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31

Couplet

Two lines of verse, usually in the same meter and joined by rhyme, that form a unit

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32

Heroic couplet

A pair of rhyming iambic pentameters, much used by Chaucer and the poets of the 17th and 18th centuries such as Alexander Pope.

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33

Denotation

The literal or primary meaning of a word, in contrast to the feelings or ideas that the word suggests

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34

Details

A particular item of information that supports an idea or contributes to an overall impression

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35

Devices of sound

Elements of literature and poetry that emphasize sound. Repetition, rhyme, alliteration, and assonance

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36

Diction

The choice and use of words and phrases in speech or writing

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37

Didactic

Intended to teach, particularly in having moral instructions as an ulterior motive. Teach than entertain

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38

Digression

A temporary departure from the main subject in speech or writing

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39

Elegy

A poem of serious reflection, typically a lament for the dead

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40

End-stopped

Having a pause at the end of each line of a poem

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41

Enjambment

The continuation of a sentence without a pause beyond the end of the line, couplet, or stanza

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42

Epic

A long poem, typically one derived from ancient oral tradition, narrating the deeds and adventures or heroic or legendary figures or the history of a nation

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43

Epic Simile

a detailed comparison in the form of a simile that are many lines in length

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44

Epigram

A pithy, saying or remark expressing on idea in a clever and amusing way

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45

Epilogue

A section or speech at the end of a book or play that serves as a comment on or a conclusion to what happen

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46

Epiphany

The sudden and striking realization that comes from an experience

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47

Epistle

A letter

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48

Ethos

The characteristic spirit of a culture, era, or community as manifested in its beliefs and aspirations

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49

Euphemism

A mild or indirect word or expression substituted for one considered too harsh or blunt when referring to something unpleasant or embarrassing

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50

Exposition

A comprehensive description and explanation of an idea or theory. The insertion of background information within a story or narrative

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51

Figurative language

The use of words in a way that deviates from the conventional order and meaning in order to convey a complicated meaning, colorful writing, clarity, or evocative comparison

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52

Foil

A character who is presented as a contrast to a second character so as to point to or show to advantage some aspect of the second character

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53

Free indirect style

Technique of presenting a character’s voice partly mediated by the voice of the author

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54

Free verse

Open form of poetry. Doesn’t use consistent meter patterns, rhyme, or any musical pattern

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55

Gothicism

A genre that places strong emphasis on intense emotion, pairing terror with pleasure, death with romance

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56

Grotesque

A bizarre or twisted character, becoming as such through some kind of obsession. May be physical or mental.

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57

Hexameter

A line of verse consisting of six metrical feet, especially of six dactyls.

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58

Hyperbole

Exaggerated statements or claims not meant to be taken literally

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59

Iamb

A metrical foot consisting of an unaccented syllable followed by an accented syllable

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60

Imagery

Visually descriptive or figurative language

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61

Internal rhyme

A rhyme involving a word in the middle of a line and another at the end of the line or in the middle of the next

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62

Verbal irony

A statement in which the speaker’s words are incongruous with the speaker’s intent

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63

Situational

The irony of something happening that is very different to what was expected

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64

Dramatic

Literary device by which the audience’s or reader’s understanding of events or individuals in a work surpasses that of its characters

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65

Jargon

Special words or expressions that are used by a particular profession in a group and are different for others to understand

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66

Juxtaposition

The fact of two things being seen or placed close together with contrasting effects

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67

Litote

A phrase that uses negation to create an affirmative understatement

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68

Logos

To appeal to the audience’s sense of reason or logic

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69

Loose sentence

The independent clause is the beginning followed by one or more dependent clauses

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70

Cumulative loose sentence

An independent clause followed by one or more modifiers

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71

Lyrical

A formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person

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72

Malapropism

Verbal blunder in which one word is replaced by another similar in sound but different meaning

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73

Metaphor

A comparison between two things that are otherwise unrelated

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74

Metonymy

The substitution of the name of an attribute or adjunct for that of the thing meant

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75

Mood

The atmosphere of the narrative. The emotional response that the writer wishes to evoke in the reader through a story

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76

Motif

Distinctive feature or idea that recurs across a story, often helps develop other narrative elements

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77

Narrative techniques

The way in which a writer coneys what they want to say to their reader and the methods that they use to develop a story

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78

Ode

A formal, often ceremonious lyric poem that addresses and often celebrates a person, place, thing, or idea

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79

Omniscient point of view

The narrator knows everything, and isn’t limited to the viewpoint of any character

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80

Onomatopoeia

The naming of a thing or action by imitation of natural sounds

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81

Oxymoron

A words or group of words that is self-contradicting

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82

Parable

A short simple story illustrating a moral or a spiritual truth

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83

Paradox

Literary device that appears to contradict itself but contains some truth, theme, or humor

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84

Parallel structure

The repetition of a chosen grammatical form within a sentence

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85

Parallelism

Coordinate ideas are arranged in phrases, sentences, and paragraphs that balance one element with another or equal importance and similar wording

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86

Parody

An imitation of the style of a particular writer, artist, or genre with deliberate exaggeration for comic effect

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87

Pathos

A quality that evokes pity or sadness

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88

Pentameter

A line of verse containing five metrical feet

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89

Periodic sentence

The main point (independent clause) occurs at the end of the sentence, after one or more side points (dependent clause) lend up to the main point

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90

Personification

Figuratively describing it with human traits in order to craft vivid images of that object in your reader’s mind

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91

Point of view

The writer’s way of deciding who is telling the story to whom

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92

First person point of view

The narrator is a person in the story, telling it from their point of view

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93

Third person point of view

The narrator exists outside the events of the story, and relates the actions of the characters by referring to their names or by the third-person pronouns

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94

Limited person point of view

The narrator tells the story from the perspective of a single protaganist

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95

Polysyndeton

A rhetorical and literary technique in which a conjunction appears over and over again to join different thoughts in one sentence

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96

Prose

Verbal or written language that follows the natural flow of speech

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97

Realism

A literary movement that represents reality by portraying mundane, everyday experiences as they are in real life

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98

Reliability

The ability to be relied on or dependent on, as for accuracy, honesty, or achievement

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99

Resources of language

Written and spoken corpora, computational lexica, terminology databases, speech collection

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100

Rhetoric

The study and uses of written, spoken and visual languages; The art of effective or persuasive speaking or writing, especially the use of figures of speech and other compositional techiques

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