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The Louisiana Purchase

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1

The Louisiana Purchase

  • In 1803, America bought the entire Louisiana territory from France for $15 million (approximately $18/square mile)

    • A bargain, because Napoleon was struggling financially

  • The nation doubled in size

  • Spain controlled the territory prior to 1800

  • Jefferson was personally torn in making the decision to purchase the territory because the constitution didn’t specifically say that he could

  • Takes decades for Americans to populate the territories

  • Mississippi was entitled to the land from it but was never given it

  • Opened the West for Settlement

  • Lewis and Clark Expedition

    • Leaders of the Corps of Discovers

    • Goals:

      • To get an idea of the flora and fauna (plant and animal life)

      • Hoped to find a wooly mammoth

      • Figure out what Native American tribes were living there and to establish positive relations with them

      • To keep the British, Spanish, and French settlers out

    • Effects:

      • Made peaceful relations with Native Tribes

      • Established borders with Spain

      • Expedition was done in 2 years - efficient

<ul><li><p>In 1803, America bought the entire Louisiana territory from France for $15 million (approximately $18/square mile)</p><ul><li><p><strong>A bargain, </strong>because Napoleon was struggling financially</p></li></ul></li><li><p><strong>The nation doubled in size</strong></p></li><li><p>Spain controlled the territory prior to 1800</p></li><li><p><strong>Jefferson </strong>was personally torn in making the decision to purchase the territory because the constitution didn’t specifically say that he could</p></li><li><p>Takes decades for Americans to populate the territories</p></li><li><p>Mississippi was entitled to the land from it but was never given it</p></li><li><p>Opened the West for Settlement</p></li><li><p>Lewis and Clark Expedition</p><ul><li><p>Leaders of the Corps of Discovers</p></li><li><p>Goals:</p><ul><li><p>To get an idea of the flora and fauna (plant and animal life)</p></li><li><p>Hoped to find a wooly mammoth</p></li><li><p>Figure out what Native American tribes were living there and to establish positive relations with them</p></li><li><p>To keep the British, Spanish, and French settlers out</p></li></ul></li><li><p>Effects:</p><ul><li><p>Made peaceful relations with Native Tribes</p></li><li><p>Established borders with Spain</p></li><li><p>Expedition was done in 2 years - efficient</p></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul>
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Corrupt Bargain

  • 25% jump in voter turnout. Andrew Jackson was seen as a common man

  • Henry Clay was a powerful representative in Kentucky. He was Speaker of the House and dropped out of the race

  • Clay convinced voters in the House to vote for Adams because he was a large influence

  • Clay ensured Adams would become president so when Adams was elected as president he appointed Clay as Secretary of State

  • Based on past statistics, Secretaries of State usually lead to the presidency

  • Andrew Jackson accused Quincy Adams (Future President) and John Clay (Secretary of State under Quincy Adams) of a corrupt bargain

    • Jackson lost the Election of 1824 even though he had the popular vote

  • In the next presidential election, Jackson wins

  • Republicans supported John Quincy Adams and the Democrats were the “Jacksonians”

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Indian Removal Act

  • Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act of 1830

  • Forced relocation of certain Native American groups (Most famously the Cherokee group)

  • Immoral and destructive

  • Forced removal of many tribes (Cherokee was just the largest and most substantial)

  • Passed by only 5 votes

  • The Cherokee took the case to the Supreme Court of the U.S.

  • Cherokee land overlapped with a lot of state territory

  • Led to the Trail of Tears and the Panic of 1837

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Panic of 1837

  • One of the most severe depressions in US history

  • What caused it?

    • Real estate bubble

      • Many Americans were desperate for land so much so that they ended up paying very inflated prices which were less than the land was worth

        • Many Americans were not able to pay off interest fees for the land to the bank

    • Unpredictable American banking policy

    • Indian Removal Act

    • Overvalued property

    • The Bank of the U.S. lost its charter and 850 banks were able to issue a private form of currency (banknotes) which swelled money supply

      • Decentralized banking

      • Wildcat banks - They could do whatever they wanted

    • Jackson’s Specie Circular of 1836 only allowed the use of coin money in gold or silver to pay for land and people weren’t allowed to trade in their banknotes for coin money 

      • Creates a run on the banks

      • A lot of people panicked and tried to get rid of all the paper money to buy gold and silver - but many banks didn’t have their money 

  • What was it?

    • 6 year depression after an economic crisis

  • Who is to blame for it?

    • Andrew Jackson

    • The Banks

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American Progress

  • 1872

  • Painting by John Gast

  • America wants to spread the light that they’ve created (knowledge of technology) into the darkness (the unknown territory; the West)

    • They thought the only way they could was by chasing the Native Americans away

  • Mountains may be the Rockies

  • Telegraph line could symbolize American communication being spread into the West

  • The woman can represent an American angel

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Homestead Act

  • Expansion Motive

  • 1862: Allowed settlers to pay a small filing fee for a 160-acre plot of public land

  • Native Americans were negatively impacted by the Act because they were displaced from the lands they settled for generations

  • The Homestead Act was so difficult to pass because these two groups were against it:

    1. Owners of factories in the East 

      1. Scared of losing their workers

    2. Powerful southern slave owners in Congress

      1. Didn’t want the small farmers to have plantations

  • In the first two decades of the 20th century immigrants (group of people) from Europe participated in the system.

  • You got 160 acres, but in return you had to live on the land for five years and improve the land (putting up fences, barns, homes, etc.). Then, after five years you could apply to get clear title to it

    • Only 40% who applied got it

  • There are many 160 acre (¼ square mile) plots of land that still exist today from the Homestead Act

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Forty-niners

Doctors, lawyers, farmers, sailors, and soldiers came from the West to find gold during the Gold Rush

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Empresario

  • Entrepreneur

  • Ex. Stephen Austin

    • American citizen

    • Makes a deal with the Mexican government - Gives control of massive territories (especially Texas) to him 

      • Mexico was having trouble defending its northern border against native American tribes

    • He was the person who was given the right to settle on land in exchange for recruiting people and taking responsibility for them

      • Land Grant - He doesn’t have governance over the area but he can bring in American families to settle in the land

    • Result: in 1825, Stephen Austin brought 300 families from the U.S. to colonize the region

      • They had to follow a lot of rules that the Mexican government put in place

      • This led to more Americans living in Texas (aka Northern Mexico) than Mexicans

    • He became known as the “Father of Texas”

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Texas Revolution

  • Southern slave owners moved into the territory - illegal in Mexico

  • National religion was Roman Catholic, but most Americans were not

  • Had to pledge allegiance to Mexico, write official documents in Spanish, and send children to Spanish schools - Which they didn't do

  • Texans began their own revolution against Mexico

    • Texans (Mostly Americans) vs. Mexicans

    • 1835 -1836

  • March 1836: Battle of the Alamo

  • April 1836: Battle of San Jacinto

    • Result: big win → Texas gained independence

      • Republic of Texas - Their own country

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Battle of the Alamo

  • March 1836

  • 186 American settlers hide up inside the building and thousands of Mexican soldiers surround the building 

  • Loss for Texas

  • “Remember the Alamo”

    • Americans see the Mexican soldiers as murderers

  • Part of the Texas Revolution

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Spot Resolution

  • 1847 Resolutions by the House of Representatives

    • Offered by Lincoln, a lawyer and representative from Illinois

  • He challenged Polk’s claim that the first American blood was spilt on American land

    • Asks for specific information about the incident

  • He doesn’t believe that Polk was justified in starting war

  • Results:

    • He was called the “Benedict Arnold of our district”

      • Traitor reference

    • The Whig party did not renominate him and he is forced to take a break from Congress

    • He was heavily criticized

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Mexican-American War

  • 1846-1848

  • Territorial dispute between the United States and Mexico over the Southern border of Texas

  • Where is the southwest border of Texas?

    • The US would say the Rio Grande River

    • Mexico would say the Nueces River

  • Troops start to move to this disputed territory

  • The US attempted to negotiate (Polk dispatched US envoys) but Mexico refused

    • Genuine effort?

  • 1845: Polk sent General Zachary Taylor (will become a President) to occupy the disputed area between the rivers

  • 1846: Polk began to plan a war message to Congress

    • Justified it because Mexico refused to negotiate

    • Whigs wanted to focus on the states we already had

  • April 25, 1846: Mexican troops crossed the Rio Grande River and attacked Taylor’s troops, killing/injuring 16 of them

    • May 11: Polk addressed Congress in his revised war message: 

    • Mexico “Invaded our territory and shed American blood on American soil”

    • He’s trying to say that if the US lets this slide, who knows what Mexico will do next - Making them the aggressor

    • May 13: War is declared by Congress

  • Lopsided victory for the US

    • Mexico is unprepared for war

      • Their internal politics were a mess

      • Their cavalry (Mexico was still relying on men on horses) couldn’t keep up with the technologically advanced Americans

        • Americans had a Navy and Mexicans didn’t

  • US was on offensive - Used amphibious warfare

  • Ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and US gained a lot of land from it

  • The US did not have a careful respect for the rights of Mexico before the War

<ul><li><p>1846-1848</p></li><li><p>Territorial dispute between the United States and Mexico over the Southern border of Texas</p></li><li><p><u>Where is the southwest border of Texas?</u></p><ul><li><p>The US would say the Rio Grande River</p></li><li><p>Mexico would say the Nueces River</p></li></ul></li><li><p>Troops start to move to this disputed territory</p></li><li><p>The US attempted to negotiate (Polk dispatched US envoys) but Mexico refused</p><ul><li><p>Genuine effort?</p></li></ul></li><li><p>1845: Polk sent General Zachary Taylor (will become a President) to occupy the disputed area between the rivers</p></li><li><p>1846: Polk began to plan a war message to Congress</p><ul><li><p>Justified it because Mexico refused to negotiate</p></li><li><p>Whigs wanted to focus on the states we already had</p></li></ul></li><li><p>April 25, 1846: Mexican troops crossed the Rio Grande River and attacked Taylor’s troops, killing/injuring 16 of them</p><ul><li><p>May 11: Polk addressed Congress in his revised war message:&nbsp;</p></li><li><p>Mexico <u>“Invaded our territory and shed American blood on American soil”</u></p></li><li><p>He’s trying to say that if the US lets this slide, who knows what Mexico will do next - Making them the aggressor</p></li><li><p>May 13: War is declared by Congress</p></li></ul></li><li><p><strong>Lopsided victory for the US</strong></p><ul><li><p><span>Mexico is unprepared for war</span></p><ul><li><p><span>Their internal politics were a mess</span></p></li><li><p><span>Their cavalry (Mexico was still relying on men on horses) couldn’t keep up with the technologically advanced Americans</span></p><ul><li><p><span>Americans had a Navy and Mexicans didn’t</span></p></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li><li><p><strong>US was on offensive - Used amphibious warfare</strong></p></li><li><p>Ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and US gained a lot of land from it</p></li><li><p>The US did not have a careful respect for the rights of Mexico before the War</p></li></ul>
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Annexation of Texas

  • 1836

    • Tried to join the US two times, but Congress rejected it

      • Because it might look bad to Mexico and Texas would have to come in as a slave state, something Congressmen were opposed to

    • It was an independent country for 9 years (1836-1845)

  • 1845

    • The US annexed the Republic of Texas

    • The President (James K. Polk) was very pro-expansion and wanted to complete the goal of Manifest Destiny

    • Time has passed - Wouldn’t look like the US was so land hungry and backed the revolution

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Indentured Servitude

  • Someone who works for someone else for a set number of years

  • Servants could be sold, just like slaves 

  • Servants (Europeans who wanted to come to the American colonies but couldn’t afford it) signed a contract, for usually 7 years, in order to come to the New World to serve someone. 

    • They got free food and shelter

  • Indentured servants enjoyed more freedom than slaves

    • Were usually white, which is why they were treated better

  • Eventually, slavery replaced indentured servitude completely

  • The end of the England civil war meant a large drop in amount of indentured servants

  • Slaves were cheaper in the long run

  • English indentured servants demanded to be treated as English citizens, while Africans could be treated harsher

  • Voluntary - Sign a contract

  • Working for a safe passage from Britain to US (ex)

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Essential qualities of slavery

  • If any slave resisted their master, it would not be a felony if their master killed them

    • Established slaves as property - 1705

      • If their master passed away, they would be passed down just like property would be 

  • If anyone came from a country that was not Christian, they would be considered enslaved

  • Molados - Derogatory term for a Mixed person

  • Enslaved people were not allowed to bear arms

  • Involuntary

  • Claiming ownership over someone’s life

  • Can’t be benevolent, even if people say George Washington treated his slaves well

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Abolition of the slave trade

  • The gag rule made it illegal to talk about the slave trade for 20 years after it was abolished - Abolished occurred when it expired

  • Ended the importation of humans into the united states for purchase

  • Outlawed in 1808

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Fugitive Slave Act

  • Fugitive Slave Clause

    • Any slave that escaped to find freedom must be returned back to their owners

    • Not enforced, and northern states did not comply 

      • South felt like they were being ignored by the federal government

  • 1850 - Reinforcement 

  • Video

    • Everything goes back to the Fugitive Slave Clause (Article 4, Section 2) of the Constitution

      • The 1793 statute demands runaway slaves were returned to owners, however it was not well enforced.

        • What did the 1850 Fugitive Slave Act do?

          • Harsher punishments 

            • 6 months of imprisonment

            • Fines

          • They punished people who harbored runaways

        • How did the enforcement of this Act contribute to the beginning of the Civil war?

          • The Act wasn’t enforced

          • Southern states complained about northern state laws interfering with the federal laws

            • Created tension between the south and the federal government

          • Northern cities encouraged the people to not comply with the Fugitive Slave Act

          • Southern cities encouraged people to follow the Fugitive Slave Act through rewards

  • Part of a group of laws that form the Compromise of 1850

  • Citizens of free states also had to cooperate

  • Effects

    • Slave Catchers

      • Strengthened slave catcher’s ability

      • Made it more enticing to kidnap free blacks, because now they have the law on their side

      • Rewards were given for the delivery of an alleged slave 

        • Anyone who looked like a description was accepted as the runaway

      • This happened to any black person, whether they were an escaped slave or not 

    • The North

      • This law infuriated the North

        • They were free states and shouldn’t be aiding the southern slavery system

      • Federal marshals could require citizens to enforce the law

        • Punishment: Could be fined $1,000 and placed in jail for 6 months

        • Committees arose to protect escaped slaves 

        • Many states began passing personal liberty laws, which directly contradicted the federal law 

          • (Similar to nullification) - The Constitution directly states that the Federal law takes precedence over the state laws, but the northern states didn’t care 

          • Some banned the use of state prisons to house suspected fugitive slaves

          • Allowed trials by jury

          • Slave bounty hunters had to present evidence that this individual was in fact a slave 

  • Was a major reason states started to secede

  • Fugitive Slave Act pleased no one

    • Southerners weren’t a fan because it wasn’t enforced

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Nat Turner’s Rebellion

  • Violent approach to abolition

  • His goal was to lead people because he believed he was selected by God

  • He gathered 6 men and killed his master’s family

    • He gained 40 people eventually and killed all the white people they encountered

    • Whites were terrified

    • They did this for 4 days before they were stopped

  • Because of this, slave codes were passed

    • Restricted rights to move, educate, preach, and assemble

    • They had to carry passes

    • Led to over 100 African-Americans being killed by whites out of fear and paranoia

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Harriet Beecher Stowe

  • 1811 - 1896

  • Female

  • White

  • Free her whole life

  • Born into a wealthy, prominent family

    • Abolitionists

  • Death of her son

    • Compassion for slaves losing their children

    • Slaves were separated from their families on a daily basis

  • Her main method of persuasion was through writing

  • Uncle Tom’s Cabin

    • A fictional story

    • Plot: Slave named Tom is sold at auction and is separated from his family and the book shows his struggles

      • Tom was a slave

      • Legree told Tom to whip Lucy because Tom tried to help Lucy by giving her cotton because she was sick (to meet the quota)

    • 2nd best selling book in the 19th century

      • Credited for laying the groundwork of the Civil War

        • Really upsetting to some people and really powerful to others

    • Exposes the horrors of slavery to Northerners

  • Abraham Lincoln called her as the “Little lady who started this big war,” referring to the Civil War

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Underground Railroad

  • Harriet Tubman was a “conductor” on the Underground Railroad

    • Guide

  • Went to the South to liberate slaves and guided them to the North

  • 19 trips over 10 years

  • 300 slaves → Freedom

  • “Never lost a single passenger”

  • Wasn't actually a railroad

  • Renting out/Hiring out

    • If a slave owner didn’t have an immediate need of slaves on their own property, they would be rented to someone else

      • Sometimes, the slaves would get a portion, and sometimes the owner would get all of the money

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Pottawatomie Massacre

  • Abolitionist John Brown led a brutal attack on a pro-slavery settlement at Pottawatomie Creek

    • Used the kind of violence that scared even his anti-slavery supporters

  • Brown and six followers killed five men, hacking at them with broadswords and cutting their throats before shooting them

  • Mahala Doyle, the wife and mother of three of Brown’s victims, expressed her bitterness and pain in this letter to John Brown

    • She sent it to him in November 1859 as he awaited execution after the Harpers Ferry raid

  • Even the popular sovereignty compromise of the Kansas-Nebraska Act couldn’t stop the violence

    • Part of Bleeding Kansas, which was caused by the Kansas-Nebraska Act (granted Kansas popular sovereignty)

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Dred Scott Decision

  • Dred Scott was owned by John Emerson, who was an army doctor

  • After Dred Scott and his wife had children, they moved from Missouri to Minnesota because of Emerson’s job, and then went back to Missouri

    • Emerson’s wife got back his property (Dred scott)

  • After Dr. Emerson passed, his wife decided to sell the Scotts’ children. As a result, Dred and Harriet decided to sue

  • Scott argued that Emerson legally brought Dred Scott from Missouri to Minnesota, which was free territory - So, he became free even though he was later returned to Missouri. He didn’t escape to free territory, he was legally brought there

  • Chief Tawney ruled that Dred Scott was still a slave when the case made it to the Supreme Court

    • “The black man has no rights that the white man can respect”

      • Asserts that black americans are not citizens

    • Invalidates the Missouri Compromise

      • It doesn’t matter if a slave moves into a free state, they will still be considered property 

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Harper’s Ferry Raid

  • John Brown + Harriet Tubman were involved

  • John Brown gathered an army of 18 men and raised money to get weapons

  • Army gathered in the farmhouse - Only came out at night

  • The raiders seized citizens and held them as hostages

  • 16 killed - 10 were Brown’s men

  • 2 years before the Civil War

  • October 16th - October 18th (2 days)

  • The Maryland side of the Potomac River

  • Causes

    • John Brown’s goal: wanted to abolish slavery in the area and would do this by killing slave holders/owners

    • Sectionalism

    • Slavery

  • Effects

    • John Brown is executed

    • Sixteen people were killed in the raid, including ten of Brown's men

    • Rebels are unsuccessful

    • “Advanced the cause of disunion more than any other event that has happened since the formation of the Government”

    • Made Civil War seem inevitable - Compromise was not possible

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American Colonization Society

  • Garrison helped form anti-slavery organizations (American Anti-Slavery Society)

    • Part of this becomes the American Colonization Society

    • Pushed for immediate emancipation

      • Freeing slaves

  • Mission

    • They wanted to end slavery by deporting all black people to Africa

    • But, many southerners started this, which is strange

  • Freed African Americans opposed the society

    • The society was harmful to their interests

    • Colonization was a pro-slavery conspiracy

      1. Puts money in the pockets of slave owners

        1. ACS purchases slaves in order to send them to Africa

    • It legitimized racist assumptions about blacks

      1. Separate but equal philosophy (Justification for why they are sending them back to Africa)

    • Division of families

    • They felt like America was just as much their country, if not more, than the white people

      1. Many of them had lived in America for their whole lives

    • Slows down the emancipation of slaves

  • William Lloyd Garrison denounced the society eventually because colonization slowed down the process of abolition because it legitimized slavery and it made people want to send their slaves to Africa instead of freeing them, which wouldn’t solve the issue of slavery

  • The invention of the cotton gin harmed the society because many who had supported ACS were now arguing in favor of pro-slavery because they knew they could profit off of it. The society faced economic troubles from this and even collapsed multiple times

    • Cotton gin dramatically increases demand for enslaved people

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Gag Rule

  • Gag - prevention of speech/communication

    • Was done in the original constitution - No one could talk about the slave trade for 20 years

  • 1836

  • Congress was being overwhelmed with petitions related to abolition

    • Government had other things to worry about

  • No legislation should be introduced or discussed pertaining from slavery

    • Abolition laws were not permitted 

    • Done in order to reunify the country

  • John Quincy Adams believed the gag rule violated the Constitution because he believed that not hearing a petition was violating the people’s rights to petition

  • Calhoun introduced the Gag rule and agreed that if states wanted to outlaw slavery, they could, but it was not up to the Federal government 

  • Is passed 

    • Not much going on until 1850 because of the gag rule 

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Election of 1860: Political Parties

  • The Democratic party has split into Southern Democratic and Northern Democratic

    • Because they were divided on slavery

  • Constitutional Union Party

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Election of 1860: Results

  • 2 years after Lincoln-Douglas debates

  • People didn’t expect Lincoln to win

    • He didn’t even win the Senate election

    • Dark horse candidate

  • Oregon became a state - 1846

  • Sectionalism - Even more so than last election

    • Lincoln carried the lower states in the North over to the Republican side 

  • States start to leave (secede) right after Lincoln wins

  • Lincoln wins 59% of the electoral vote and 40% of the popular vote

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Border States

  • Missouri

  • Kentucky

  • Maryland

  • Delaware

  • West Virginia

  • These states are slave states but still fight on the part of the Union

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Fort Sumter

  • (April 1861)

  • Fort Sumter is a fortification in Charleston, SC

    • Federal troops controlled it but it is in the Confederacy

  • Lincoln was nervous that the federal troops weren’t strong enough to control it, so he decided to provide humanitarian relief (food and clothes) but not arms

    • Weapons would be seen as a sign of aggression

    • Done to prevent a Confederate attack on the North

  • Federal government refuses to surrender to the South

  • Confederate Response: bombarded the Fort

    • Lincoln didn’t want them to shoot, but also didn’t want them to leave

    • For 34 hours

    • Union troops eventually start firing back

    • No one was killed

  • Official start of the military conflict in the Civil War

  • Us Major Anderson realized there were not enough provisions so he surrendered

    • Confederates take control of the Fort

      • Government building

  • The day the Fort is surrendered, Lincoln calls for 75,000 additional troops/volunteers

    • Lincoln knew so fast of the events because of telegraphs

    • Lincoln knew marshalls couldn’t fix this by themselves

    • These volunteers would go to the South and act like police officers

  • Overwhelming response of volunteers

    • Expectations for the amount of volunteers from each state/territory

    • Ex. Iowa contributed 20 times the expected number of volunteers

  • Why were so many people so eager to enlist?

    • Lincoln’s proclamation told all the people that if they had any integrity or honor, they would enlist

    • Lincoln told them that the mission of the army would be to take back the property that the Confederacy took, which was reassuring because the people just thought they would be peacekeepers

  • Lincoln tells the Southerners that they must vacate the post offices and the Forts they took within 20 days

    • The Southerners don’t leave

  • Lincoln calls an emergency meeting to happen on July 4th for everyone to come into session and pass legislation regarding the southern states seceding

    • Since they U.S. is in a time of rebellion and insurrection, Lincoln can suspend habeas corpus and send people to prison for no reason

  • 4 more states seceded

    • Scary for Lincoln

  • 7 states seceded before Fort Sumter

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War Goals

  • Anaconda Plan

    • Blockade Southern ports

      • So that the South can’t sell it’s natural resources - to hurt them economically

    • Control Mississippi River

      • Split Confederacy

    • Capture Richmond, VA

      • Confederate Capital

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Emancipation Proclamation

  • Jan. 1, 1863

  • Lincoln only freed slaves in any state that was against the Union (The Confederate States) through the Emancipation Proclamation

    • Didn’t free all slaves because there were some slave states that were part of the Union (border states) that would be upset if Lincoln did this

  • Historians might see The Emancipation Proclamation as a strategy to win the Civil War

  • Instituted a draft, where blacks were exempt and people could pay to be exempt

  • Caused by Antietam

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Surrender at Appomattox

  • April 1865

  • Union troops finally closed in on Richmond, VA

    • Last part of Anaconda Plan

  • Two commanders met and agreed on the terms of surrender 

  • Lee didn’t have much bargaining power

  • The South was allowed to surrender with dignity

    • General Grant could have demanded all the horses, weapons, and uniforms or humiliate them, but he instead allowed Confederate officers to ride off on their horses and keep their side weapons

    • Lee’s men were sent home on parole

      • Lincoln wasn’t looking to really punish the South

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Combat During War

  • Most troops fought on foot, marching in tight formation and firing at relatively close range

  • The North aimed to economically squeeze the South with the Anaconda Plan

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Lincoln’s Assassination

  • Booth was unhappy with Lincoln because he wanted to do something significant and powerful and also because he thought nothing else would get done with Lincoln as President

  • The door to Lincoln’s balcony was unguarded and opened, so John Wilkes Booth entered and shot him in the back of the head

  • Lincoln’s assassination was a part of a bigger plot to overthrow the government

  • There were other conspirators

  • There was an attempted assassination of the secretary of state, William H. Seward

  • Lincoln is assassinated right after the Civil War ends

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Reconstruction

  • 1865 – 1877

  • The period during which the United States began to rebuild after the Civil War

  • The process the federal government used to readmit the Confederate states

  • 1865 (war’s end) - 1877

  • Difficulty → 3 different plans

    • Lincoln

      • Outlook: Leniency

        • Not very harsh to the South

        • Lincoln’s whole mission was to keep the country together

        • Since it was not legal for the states to secede, they technically never left the union so they shouldn’t be punished

      • Proposal:

        • Presidential Pardon → rationale & exceptions

          • Even if you're found guilty of a crime, the President can declare you innocent

          • Pardons the whole Confederacy of treason

        • Oath (10%) & Emancipation Proclamation → Statehood

          • 10% of white, landowning males/voters in each state would have to pledge an oath of allegiance to the Union & state government would have to promise not to have slaves in order to be readmitted into the Union

      • Supporters: some Confederate states

        • They knew they likely would not get a more lenient plan

      • Was not the plan that was chosen

    • Johnson

      • Andrew Johnson’s initial plan for Reconstruction failed to require the southern states to draft new constitutions

      • Outlook: Leniency

        • Born in North Carolina and was a Southerner

        • Spent a lot of his life in Tennessee (Senator there)

        • Came from a history of farming and slavery

        • Empathizes with Confederacy

        • If not as lenient as Lincoln, even more so

      • Proposal: 

        • Readmission w/ 4 conditions

        • Oath w/ exceptions

      • People argued that this was not helping slavery be abolished because even though “slaves” were being paid, they were not being paid enough to live and therefore had to keep working on the plantation 

      • Supporters: white southerners 

    • Congress

      • Outlook: No leniency - Retaliation

        • Wanted to punish the South

      • Proposal: 

        • Citizenship & Right to Vote

          • Granted more rights to Blacks

          • Message to the South that the people who they enslaved would now live the same way as them

        • Military Oversight

          • They didn’t trust that the South would uphold the Amendments

          • South split into 5 military districts with martial law in each 

        • Did not recognize states already readmitted into the Union by Lincoln or Johnson

        • States had to ratify the 14th Amendment (¾ of legislature has to agree) and get rid of all former confederate leaders from their government 

      • Supporters: Radical and moderate Republicans

        • Ex. Sumner & Stevens

        • Factions of the Republican party 

  • White supremacy organizations hurt Congressional efforts to aid African Americans after the Civil War

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Reconstruction Acts

  • Freedman’s Bureau Act of 1866

    • 1866

      • One year after the War

    • The Act was to enlarge the Bureau

      Congress would set aside more money for them

    • Johnson vetoed it → Congress overrode it

      Happens several times during the Reconstruction period

  • Civil Rights Act of 1866

    • Outlaws black codes

  • Reconstruction Act of 1867

    • A success of Congressional Reconstruction

    • What it did:

      • Did NOT recognize state governments recognized by Lincoln and Johnson

        • This meant that some states (ex. Louisiana) that were admitted by Lincoln or Johnson would still have to go through Congress’ process of readmittance to actually join the US

      • Divided Confederate region into 5 military districts w/ Union general

    • Readmission Conditions:

      • African Americans given right to vote

        • 3 years before ratification of the 15th Amendment

      • 14th Amendment ratified

    • Johnson vetoed → Congress overrode 

      • 3 laws in a row where this happens

      • Congress was in control politically

  • Enforcement Act of 1870

    • Johnson doesn’t veto this because he is not able to 

      • Johnson’s presidency is over by 1868

      • Grant is President and is not at odds with Congress because he is Republican

    • Issue: Expected that Confederate states would not obey Reconstruction laws

    • Gave the federal government more power 

      • To ensure laws were being followed

      • To punish those who tried to prevent African Americans from exercising their new rights

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Ku Klux Klan

  • Terrorist organization

  • They bring children into their beliefs

  • Began in 1865 in Tennessee (Christmas Eve)

    • Same year the Civil War ends (shortly after the Civil War)

  • Original members:

    • All 6 ex. Confederate soldiers

    • Nathan Bedford Forest is the first leader

  • Hoods and robes were worn, meant to scare blacks or even white american sympathizers, but it eventually escalated into murdering them and lighting crosses on fire

    • Lynching

  • Tried to get blacks to leave their community

  • The robes and tactics of the clan are less popular now, but they now use the internet as a place to target people in order to conceal their identities

  • The KKK wouldn’t want black people to join their party

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Compromise of 1877

  • Election of 1876 was a controversial election in terms of electoral votes

    • Republican reports of voter fraud and black Americans in the South being barred from polling stations

    • A congressional committee/commission (dominated by Republicans) investigated these reports

      • 8 Republicans 

      • 7 Democrats

        • 8 votes for Hayes and 7 votes for Tilden in every state that there were accusations in, which is why Hayes got the votes in the electoral college

    • Some southern states even threaten to secede a second time

  • Southern Democrats accept that Hayes gets the disputed vote on two conditions

    • Guarantee of federal aid to the south

    • Removal of all remaining federal troops from the south

  • Considered the end of Reconstruction

    • Congress is done punishing the south and the south gets autonomy back

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Lynchings

  • Hanging based on race (4,000 black Americans are lynched after the Amendments were passed)

  • Part of Jim Crow system

  • De facto segregation

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Plessy v. Ferguson

  • Made it legal for blacks and whites to be separated, as long as the facilities are equal

    • Separate but equal

    • But the resources provided were never equal

  • Plessy

    • From New Orleans, Louisiana

    • ⅛ black and still considered black

    • Vice President of a group working to improve the education system

    • Claimed that they violated his 13th and 14th Amendment

      • He claimed that he was being treated as if he was still a slave and that he was not being treated equally under the law because he was black

    • Plessy sued a judge on the court

  • Separate Car Act (1890)

    • Legalized separating train cars by skin color

  • Plessy boarded a whites only car and was arrested 

    • Committee of Citizens planned this and bailed Plessy out in order to challenge the Separate Car Act in court

  • Ferguson

    • Judge of Louisiana state court

  • Majority opinion → There’s nothing in the Act that makes the black cars in the train worse than the white ones

  • Court case took a while (4 years) to make it to the Supreme Court

  • Legalized segregation, which already existed anyway

  • There were 8 justices. (7-1) If there was a tie, the inferior state Court decision would stand

  • Proved the power that the judicial branch has over the way Americans live

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The Great Migration

  • 1916-1970

  • 6 million African Americans moved out of the rural South to the Northeast, Midwest, and West

  • Caused by segregation and lynchings

  • De facto segregation

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Literacy Tests

  • Used to prevent blacks and sometimes poor whites from voting by assessing them on literacy skills, but the test was designed to fail people

  • Many were not able to pass the test because it was impossible and they did not get educated because they were slaves

  • De jure segregation

  • They had to get a perfect score in order to pass

  • White people didn’t take it because of the “grandfather clause”

  • Laissez-faire (hands off) Supreme Court allows the states to pass laws to undermine the 13th, 14th, and 15 Amendments

  • Official purpose: To make sure the voting population is educated

  • Hidden purpose: To bar blacks from voting

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Segregation

  • Jim Crow

    • Came from people who would burn corks and smudge the color on their face and imitate African Americans 

      • One of the “characters” someone created was Jim Crow

    • What: A regime of racial inequality

    • Where: The American South

    • When: 1890-1965

    • Why: To legalize segregation and restrict black rights

    • “Three headed monster”

      • 1. Political disenfranchisement

        • Taking away the right to vote

        • Undo/counter the 15th Amendment 

      • 2. Threat of lynching and mob violence 

      • 3. Racial segregation of public space

        • Separate schools, drinking fountains, and movie theaters

  • De facto Segregation: Segregation that happens by fact, not by law

    • Lynchings

    • The Great Migration

  • De jure Segregation: Segregation enforced by law

    • Poll Taxes

    • Literacy Tests

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Dwight D. Eisenhower

  • President Eisenhower had troops escort the students to and from the school during the Little Rock 9

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Brown v. Board of Education

  • Ruled that U.S. state laws establishing racial segregation in public schools are unconstitutional, even if the segregated schools are otherwise equal in quality

  • Chief Justice Earl Warren’s opinion

    • U.S. Supreme Court Justice Earl Warren delivered the unanimous ruling in the landmark civil rights case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. State-sanctioned segregation of public schools was a violation of the 14th amendment and was therefore unconstitutional

    • Stated that Plessy v. Ferguson was incorrect

    • Stated that the segregation of public schools negatively impacted the mental development of Blacks

    • Stated that separate is inherently unequal

  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    • Made it legal for blacks and whites to be separated, as long as the facilities are equal

      • Separate but equal

      • But the resources provided were never equal

    • Plessy

      • From New Orleans, Louisiana

      • ⅛ black and still considered black

      • Vice President of a group working to improve the education system

      • Claimed that they violated his 13th and 14th Amendment

        • He claimed that he was being treated as if he was still a slave and that he was not being treated equally under the law because he was black

      • Plessy sued a judge on the court

    • Separate Car Act (1890)

      • Legalized separating train cars by skin color

    • Plessy boarded a whites only car and was arrested 

      • Committee of Citizens planned this and bailed Plessy out in order to challenge the Separate Car Act in court

    • Ferguson

      • Judge of Louisiana state court

    • Majority opinion → There’s nothing in the Act that makes the black cars in the train worse than the white ones

    • Court case took a while (4 years) to make it to the Supreme Court

    • Legalized segregation, which already existed anyway

    • There were 8 justices. (7-1) If there was a tie, the inferior state Court decision would stand

    • Proved the power that the judicial branch has over the way Americans live

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Freedom Rides

  • Public bus trips taken by racially integrated groups to the Deep South

  • The intentions were to sit wherever they wanted on buses and trains and demand unrestricted access to restaurants and waiting rooms

  • Angry white mobs would throw rocks and bricks at the windows of these buses, slash the tires, and throw firebombs through the windows. As the freedom riders fled the bus, baseball bats were thrown at them

  • Led to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

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Sit-in Movement

  • African Americans were refused service at stores

  • By bringing in lots of students to sit in at stores, it brought pressure upon store owners and their racist regulations

  • Originated in Greensboro, NC but eventually spread to a lot of the South

    • Affected 20 total states

    • The Greensboro 4 started this

  • A series of nonviolent protests against racial segregation at lunch counters 

  • The goal was to bring awareness and attention to racial inequality

  • Protesters were met with violence and assault

  • Students at Warsaw University completed a 2 day sit-in and did not attend class or lectures

  • The Sit-In Movement led to the Freedom Rides and Freedom Summer

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W.E.B. DuBois and Booker Washington

  • Washington

    • Born into slavery

    • Worked at an early age

    • Didn’t get a lot of education

    • From Virginia, segregated community

    • Approach to slavery was conciliatory, which means that he wanted to gain support in order to reduce hostility

    • He fundraised for the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute as well as other Black organizations

    • Believed that economic independence and ability to prove themselves to society were the only way to achieve equality

  • DuBois

    • Born into freedom

    • Excelled in early education

    • From Massachusetts, integrated community

    • Approach was publishing influential works about the conditions of Black Americans

    • Dubois thought that education and civil rights were the only way to achieve equality

  • Washington and Du Bois were both born in the same era, were highly accomplished scholars, and were committed to the cause of civil rights for Black people in America. They were both black and were victims of racism at points

  • I feel that Dubois’ approach was more effective because he ended up founding a political group called Niagara, which was dedicated to his cause and later formed the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Dubois continued to champion the civil rights movement, with and without the NAACP. Washington, on the other hand, quickly lost the political influence when Woodrow became President.

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March on Washington

  • The Washington Monument to the Lincoln Memorial, Washington, D.C.

  • Organized by Philip Randolph, MLK Jr., Bayard Rustin, and more

    • Philip Randolph

      • Civil Rights Leader and Activist

      • Organizer of the march

    • MLK Jr.

      • 34 years old at the time of the march

    • Bayard Rustin

      • Singer for equality in all white clubs

      • Helped Randolph organize the march

      • Devoted his life and career to the civil rights movement

    • John Lewis

      • Chairperson of the SNCC

      • Representative for young people and gave a speech at the march

    • James Farmer

      • Co-founder of CORE

  • 250,000 people came

  • The goal was to gain civil rights and equality

  • Kennedy’s Civil Rights Bill

    • The march pressured him to pass the bill

  • The protest was meant to earn equal rights, jobs and freedom, federal protection, and desegregation

  • The march consisted of performances and speeches

  • Influenced the signing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965

  • “I have a dream” speech

    • 250,000 people gathered in Washington, D.C.

    • Protesting for equal rights

      • It was almost impossible for blacks to become employed

    • MLK wanted to end economic and employment inequality

    • 17 minutes long

    • MLK read his speech up to a point, but he started improvising with what he wanted to say about his dreams

    • His speech was influenced by Mahalia Jackson and also his father

    • 1963

    • Before his “I have a dream” speech, there were versions of it called “The American Dream”

    • Known to be one of the most iconic speeches in U.S. history

      • Power resonated with the audience

    • References the Emancipation Proclamation and the Gettysburg Address

    • Helped create Civil Rights Act of 1964, Voting Rights Act of 1965, and helped end racial segregation as a whole

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MLKJ and Malcolm X

  • MLKJ

    • Most influential and effective leader in the civil rights movement

    • MLK Sr. was a pastor at a church

    • MLK skipped grades 9 and 12 and went to college at 15

      • Went to the first black school in Georgia

    • Worked at Dexter Ave. Baptist Church in Montgomery

    • Was very religious

    • Was influenced by Rosa Parks

      • Worked with her to end segregation of buses in Montgomery, and then nationwide

    • His home was bombed in 1956

    • Founded the SCLC in 1957

      • Put together organized protests and speeches about social justice

      • “Give us the Ballot” speech

    • In NY, King was stabbed and nearly killed

      • “I’m so happy that I didn’t sneeze”

    • Studied Gandhi 

      • Traveled to India in 1959

    • King wrote “Letter from the Birmingham Jail” 

      • “Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice anywhere”

    • 1963 Time Person of the Year

      • 1964 Nobel Peace Prize

        • Youngest man to ever win it

        • Donated the money he won from it to further the Civil Rights Movement

    • Organized a march that influenced the 1965 Voting Rights Act

    • Advocated for underrepresented groups, not just blacks

      • “Poor People’s Campaign”

    • King was assassinated in 1968

      • Funeral was an international event

    • Arrested 29 times

  • Malcom X

    • Malcom X was born as Malcom Little in 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska

    • Before he was part of the Nation of Islam, he was sent to jail for 7 years

    • W.D Fard was the original creator of the Nation of Islam.

      • After a trip to Mecca, W.D. claimed that God was black

    • Claimed that white people were devils and blacks were angels

    • Malcom X started the newspaper “Muhammed Speaks” →“By any means necessary” invoking violence

    • The Ballot or the Bullet Speech → Cleveland Ohio

      • Most famous speech. Bullet represents blacks' last resort to self defense

    • Malcom believed in black rights → BLM. He was NOI, then converted to Sunni Islam

    • Started the Black Panther Party → invoked violent beliefs and wanted change immediately → Black Nationalism. 

    • Pan Africanism → Black people come together and form a powerful society

    • Malcom spread his ideas through speeches and his newspaper

    • MLK and Malcom X did not see eye to eye but MLK admired his work ethic

    • Then changes his views and wants black people to stand up for themselves

    • Malcolm → assassinated by NOI members that believed Malcolm was against their beliefs

    • Malcolm’s work helped the black community prosper but also created a false impression of what Islam was

  • They were both assassinated

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Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965

  • The March on Washington rally was to convince Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act

  • 1964: Civil Rights Act

    • Why: First major legislative victory in the civil rights movement

      • MLKJ referred to it as a “second emancipation”

    • Who: President Johnson (Lyndon Johnson - Basically the opposite of Andrew Johnson)

    • What: 

      • Outlawed discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or origin

      • Required equal access to public places and employment

      • Enforced the desegregation of schools and the right to vote

        • Legislative formalization of Brown v. BOE

  • 1965: Voting Rights Act

    • Why: March from Selma to Montgomery

      • Advocated for equal voting rights

      • There were still poll taxes and literacy tests at the time

    • Who: President Johnson

    • What: Enforced the right of African Americans to vote

      • Prohibited states from imposing voting qualifications like literacy tests and poll taxes

    • How: Supervision by the Dept. of Justice

      • Examiners - Federal agents who went to southern states to ensure that the act was being followed

    • Result: Voter turnout of Black Americans in South rose

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