unit 2 vocab

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agreement

an arrangement, a promise or a contract made with somebody

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to annex

to take control of a country, region, etc., especially by force

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artillery

large, heavy guns which are often moved on wheels

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to back down

to take back a demand, an opinion, etc. that other people are strongly opposed to; to admit defeat

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to declare

to say something officially or publicly

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to interfere

to get involved in and try to influence a situation that should not really involve you, in a way that annoys other people

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to invade

to enter a country, town, etc. using military force in order to take control of it

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to mobilise

if a country mobilizes its army, or if a country or army mobilizes, it makes itself ready to fight in a war

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outbreak

the sudden start of something unpleasant, especially violence or a disease

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to protect

to make sure that somebody/something is not harmed, injured, damaged, etc.

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to spark (a conflict)

to cause something to start or develop, especially suddenly

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strategically

in a way that is connected with getting an advantage in a war or other military situation

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tension

a situation in which the fact that there are different needs or interests causes difficulties

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to threaten

to be a danger to something

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trench(es)

a long, deep hole dug in the ground, for example for carrying away water

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invasion

the act of an army entering another country by force in order to take control of it

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threat

the possibility of trouble, danger or disaster

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trench warfare

a type of land warfare using occupied lines largely comprising military trenches,

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barely

in a way that is just possible but only with difficulty

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brutal

violent and cruel

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casualty

a member of an army who is killed, wounded, or captured

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to conduct (a survey)

to organize and/or do a particular activity

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desperate

feeling or showing that you have little hope and are ready to do anything without worrying about danger to yourself or others

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hostility

aggressive or unfriendly feelings or behaviour

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to launch (a campaign)

to start an activity, especially an organized one

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nationalism

the desire by a group of people who share the same ethnic group, culture, language, etc. to form an independent country

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stalemate

a disagreement or a situation in a competition in which neither side is able to win or make any progress

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survey

the act of examining and recording the measurements, features, etc. of an area of land in order to make a map or plan of it

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to withdraw

to move back or away from a place or situation; to make somebody/something do this

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worldwide

affecting all parts of the world

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to survey

the act of examining and recording the measurements, features, etc. of an area of land in order to make a map or plan of it

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civilian

a person who is not a member of the armed forces or the police

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duty

something that you feel you have to do because it is your moral or legal responsibility

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to enlist

to join the armed forces; to make somebody join the armed forces

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independent

confident and free to do things without needing help from other people

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memento

a thing that you keep or give to somebody to remind you or them of a person or place

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prisoner of war

a person, usually a member of the armed forces, who is captured by the enemy during a war and kept in a prison camp until the war has finished

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to rage

to continue in a violent way

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to serve

to work or perform duties for a person, an organization, a country, etc.; to spend a period of time in a particular job

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veteran

a person who has a lot of experience in a particular area or activity

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conscription

the practice of ordering people by law to join the armed forces

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demand

the desire or need of customers for goods or services that they want to buy or use

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eligible

a person who is able to have or do it because they have the right qualifications, are the right age, etc.

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exemption

official permission not to do something or pay something that you would normally have to do or pay

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to explore

to examine a subject or a possibility completely or carefully in order to find out more about it

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to force

to make somebody do something that they do not want to do

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to grant

to agree to give somebody what they ask for, especially formal or legal permission to do something

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propaganda

ideas or statements that may be false or present only one side of an argument that are used in order to gain support for a political leader, party, etc.

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to report

to present a written or spoken account of an event in a newspaper, on television, etc.

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survivor

a person who continues to live, especially despite being nearly killed or experiencing great danger or difficulty

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the front line

an area where the enemies are facing each other during a war and where fighting takes place

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(to be) under attack

to be in the process of being attacked

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to survive

to continue to live or exist despite a dangerous event or time

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ammunition

a supply of bullets, etc. to be fired from guns

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brainwashing

the activity of forcing somebody to accept your ideas or beliefs, for example by repeating the same thing many times or by preventing the person from thinking clearly

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censorship

​the act or policy of censoring books, etc.

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compulsory

that must be done because of a law or a rule

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to denounce

to strongly criticize somebody/something that you think is wrong, illegal, etc.

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to deteriorate

to become worse

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effective

​producing the result that is wanted or intended; producing a successful result

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to eliminate

to remove or get rid of something

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loyal

remaining constant in your support of somebody/something

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movement (as in: group of people, such as the Hitler Youth movement)

a group of people who share the same ideas or aims

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to obey

to do what you are told or expected to do

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to oppose

to disagree strongly with somebody’s plan, policy, etc. and try to change it or prevent it from succeeding

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to persecute

to treat somebody in a cruel and unfair way, especially because of their race, religion or political beliefs

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to promote

to help sell a product, service, etc. or make it more popular by advertising it or offering it at a special price

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slogan

​a word or phrase that is easy to remember, used for example by a political party or in advertising to attract people’s attention or to suggest an idea quickly

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effectively

in a way that produces the intended result or a successful result

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effectiveness

the fact of producing the result that is wanted or intended; the fact of producing a successful result

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loyalty

the quality of being constant in your support of somebody/something

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badge

small piece of metal or plastic, with a design or words on it, that a person wears or carries to show that they belong to an organization, support something, have achieved something, have a particular rank, etc.

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compulsory

that must be done because of a law or a rule

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to drop out

​to no longer take part in or be part of something

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to identify with

o feel that you can understand and share the feelings of somebody else

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illegal

​not allowed by the law

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to impose

to introduce a new law, rule, tax, etc.; to order that a rule, punishment, etc. be used

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independence

the freedom to organize your own life, make your own decisions, etc. without needing help from other people

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to outlaw

to make something illegal

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to refuse

to say or show that you will not do something that somebody has asked you to do

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to dedicate

to give a lot of your time and effort to a particular activity or purpose because you think it is important

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deserter

a person who leaves the army, navy, etc. without permission

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to hail

to describe somebody/something as being very good or special, especially in newspapers, etc.

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to hang

to kill somebody by tying a rope around their neck and allowing them to drop; to be killed in this way

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