HUSH Ch. 16-18 Test

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Second Industrial Revolution

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101 Terms


Second Industrial Revolution

  • Explosive economic growth

  • US transforms from small farms → world’s largest industrial society

  • Railroad expansion creates national market

  • New inventions

  • Cutthroat business competition

  • Captains of industry

  • Great social/economic inequities

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Thomas Edison

  • Gilded Age era’s greatest inventor

  • New industries transforming private life, public entertainment, economic activity

  • Invented the lightbulb

    • Spread of electricity central to industrial/urban growth bc reliable/flexible power source

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  • Legal device where a single director managed affairs of several rival companies

  • Intended to alleviate business competition

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Captains of Industry

  • Industrial leaders

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Robber Barons

  • Derogatory term for industrial leaders

    • Abused power w/o democratic control

    • Dictatorial, repressive labor policies

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JP Morgan

  • Financier

  • Helped create US Steel with Andrew Carnegie by combining eight large steel companies into the first billion-dollar economic enterprise

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John D. Rockefeller

  • Dominated the oil industry

  • Began with horizontal expansion (buying out competitors) → vertical integration

  • Standard Oil Company

  • Gave much $ away to fund foundations promoting education and medical research

  • Problems with unfair labor

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Standard Oil Company

  • Rockefeller’s monopoly over the oil industry

  • Controlled 90% of US oil industry by 1880s

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Cornelius Vanderbilt

  • AKA “the Commodore”

  • Captain of industry/robber baron who got rich off of railroads and shipping

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Andrew Carnegie

  • Founded United States Steel Corporation (US Steel)

  • Believed rich are morally obligated to promote society’s advancement & distributed much $ to philanthropies and public libraries

  • Dictatorial — factories operated nonstop w/ two 12 hour shifts everyday

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Gospel of Wealth

  • Belief that rich are morally obligated to promote society’s advancement & distributed much $ to philanthropies and public libraries

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United States Steel Corporation

  • Carnegie’s monopoly over steel industry

  • Used vertical integration

  • Most tech advanced steel factories in world

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Vertical Integration

  • System where every phase/aspect of business is controlled (e.g. factories, railroads, train cars, workers, managers, all under same company)

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Horizontal Expansion

  • When a company buys out/”eats” competitors

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Mark Twain

  • Wrote novel “The Gilded Age” about great economic growth but also corruption of politics by corporations & oppressive treatment of working class

  • Inspired naming of the Gilded Age

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Gilded Age

  • 1870-1890

  • Deep social divisions

  • Second Industrial Revolution

  • Freedom compromised by industrialization

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Social Darwinism

  • Idea of natural superiority of some groups to others reemerged to explain success/failure of individuals/social classes

  • Charles Darwin’s 1859 On the Origin of Species — theory of evolution, where those best suited to their environment took places of those less able

  • “Natural selection,” “struggle for existence,” and “survival of the fittest” entered public discussion of social problems — said evolution (giant industrial corps rising because better adapted to environment than other previous forms) was natural part of human society, so gov shouldn’t interfere

  • Widespread view that poor were responsible for own fates and that failure to advance in society meant lack of character

  • Most influential __ist was Yale professor William Graham Sumner, believed in survival of the fittest, that government should only protect, not interfere

  • Popularized negative freedom (limited gov, unrestrained free market)

    • As long as labor relations were governed by freely made contracts, then gov/unions can’t interfere, & workers had no grounds to complain of no freedom

    • Free labor became defense for capitalist market

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Lochner v. New York

  • Supreme Court case that voided state law establishing max work hours for bakers

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Great Railroad Strike

  • 1877

  • Showed strong worker solidarity & the close ties between Republicans and new industrialists

  • President Rutherford B. Hayes ordered army into the North to put down strikers by force

  • Afterwards, fed gov made armories in major cities so that troops could keep future labor problems in check

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Knights of Labor

  • Labor organization led by Terence V. Powderly

  • First group that organized unskilled/skilled workers, women/men, black/white

  • Strikes, boycotts, political action, educational/social activities

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Social Gospel

  • Effort to reform Protestant churches by expanding appeal to poor urban neighborhoods, becoming more attentive to social ills (some in Catholic churches tried this too)

  • Established missions, relief programs, advocate against poverty, child labor, for better working-class housing

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Haymarket Affair

  • May 3, police killed 4 strikers → next day, a rally in __ Square protesting the killings. Someone threw a bomb into the crowd, killing a policeman, causing police to open fire. Police later raided offices of labor and radical groups, arresting their leaders.

  • Employers used __ to paint labor movement as dangerous, un-American, violent, controlled by foreign-born radicals

  • 8 anarchists, most foreign-born, called __ martyrs, charged w/ weak evidence for carrying out bombing

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Chief Joseph

  • Leader of the Nez Percé Indians

  • O. O. Howard led troops against Nez Percé Indians who were trying to escape to Canada after fights with settlers

  • Howard forced them to surrender, removed to Oklahoma and Washington

  • Petitioned unsuccessfully for rest of his life for Nez Percé to return to their home

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Battle of Little Bighorn

  • June 1876

  • Most famous native victory

  • General George A. Custer/his men all died against Sioux and Cheyenne warriors led by Sitting Bull & Crazy Horse defending tribal land in Black Hills of Dakota

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General George A. Custer

  • Him and his men died fighting against Sitting Bull & Crazy Horse at the Battle of Little Bighorn

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Dawes Act

  • Passed in 1887

  • Named after Senator Henry L. __ (chair of Senate’s Indian Affairs Committee)

  • Broke up tribal land, distributed bits to native families, auctioned off rest to white ppl

    • Natives who accepted the farms and assimilated would become full citizens

  • Led to loss of tons of tribal land and erosion of native culture

  • Land rushes — white settlers poured into the opened territory

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Elk v. Wilkins

  • Supreme Court case in 1884

  • Showed that Civil Rights Act, 14/15 Amendments didn’t apply to natives who were rarely recognized as citizens

  • John __ born in Indian Territory but left tribe, worked/paid taxes in Omaha, failed to claim citizenship/register to vote after SC rejected appeal, questioned whether any natives had really been “civilized” enough to be citizens

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Ghost Dance

  • Religious revitalization campaign

  • Foresaw future w/o white people, return of buffalo, natives could practice customs “free from misery, death, and disease,” singing, dancing, religious observances

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Wounded Knee Massacre

  • Gov feared uprising due to Ghost Dance campaign and sent troops to reservations, killing 150-200 natives in __ Creek on December 29, 1890

  • Widely applauded in press, troops were exonerated, twenty soldiers even awarded Medal of Honor

  • Marked end of 4 centuries of armed conflict between natives and white settlers

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William “Buffalo Bill” Cody

  • New image of the West as the Wild West — lawless, cowboys, Indians, gunfights, cattle drives, stagecoach robberies, violent yet romantic frontier

  • Inspired Hollywood movies/medias like __’s Wild West Show

    • Reenactments of battles w/ natives, buffalo hunts, native rituals, etc.

    • Didn’t depict reality of the West

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Sitting Bull

  • Native American leader

  • Alongside Crazy Horse, he led Sioux and Cheyenne warriors in the Battle of Little Bighorn

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Civil Service Act of 1883

  • President Garfield’s assassination by disappointed office seeker led to this act

  • Merit system for federal employees, appointment via exams, not political influence — first step in removing officeholding from control of political machines

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Interstate Commerce Act/Commission

  • Established by Congress in 1887

  • Made sure railroads charged farmers/merchants at reasonable rates (no favoring)

  • First federal agency intended to regulate economic activity, but bc no power to establish rates on own, could only sue companies, made little impact

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Sherman Antitrust Act

  • Passed in 1890

  • Banned practices restraining free trade, but language was vague, making it impossible to enforce

  • Prevented business mergers that stifled competition

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Farmers’ Alliance

  • Formed in late 1870s

  • Proposed “subtreasury plan”

    • Fed gov to make warehouses for farmers to store crops until sold, issue loans w/ low interest rates to farmers, end farmer dependence on bankers/merchants

  • Became the people’s party/populists in 1890s

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Populists (People’s Party)

  • Appealed to producing classes — farmers, miners, industrial workers, mostly cotton/wheat belts in S/W

  • Vision of America as commonwealth of small producers where land ~ freedom

  • Tried to unite S black/white small farmers for common political/economic program bc of common grievances & goals, also to break Democrats' hold on S

  • Engaged many women from farm/labor backgrounds & endorsed woman suffrage

  • Joined with Democrats to support William Jennings Bryan for presidency

  • Wanted to expand $ supply and reduce farmers’ debt by using silver

  • Wanted gov owned railroads and controlled shipping rates

  • Wanted progressive income tax

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Mary Elizabeth Lease

  • Prominent female organizer, campaigner, and strategist for the Populists

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Coxey’s Army

  • May 1894

  • Band of hundreds of unemployed men under Jacob Coxey

  • Marched to Washington demanding economic relief

  • Fed gov deployed soldiers to disperse them

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Pullman Strike

  • Protest for reduction in wages in __, Illinois

  • American Railway Union members refused to handle trains with __ cars -- the boycott crippled national rail service

  • President Grover Cleveland’s attorney general Richard Olney ordered strikers back to work, fed troops occupied railroad centers

  • Supreme Court case In re Debs approved use of injunctions against strikes & sentenced union leaders to jail, including union president Eugene V. Debs

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Eugene V. Debs

  • Jailed for leading Pullman Strike

  • At the forefront of socialist movement, preached economic freedom across nation, won 900k+ votes for president in 1912 as socialism became very popular

  • Political equality economic freedom, against classes

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William Jennings Bryan

  • Won Democratic nomination after his “Cross of gold” speech, called for “free coinage” of silver (unrestricted minting), condemned the gold standard

  • Very religious, strong influence from Social Gospel, vision of gov helping ordinary Americans, went on nationwide speaking tour to rally support

  • Opposed the Philippine War for being “un-American” (crushing Filipino goal of liberty/self gov)

  • Ran (and lost) 3 times for president

    • Support from south/west

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William McKinley

  • Nominated by Republicans for the Election of 1896

    • Carried the industrial northeast/midwest

  • Imperialism:

    • Ordered Congress to declare war against Spain in Cuba conflict

    • Didn’t want to return the Philippines to Spain or give independence -- believed it was US duty to “uplift and civilize” Filipino ppl

    • Granted Cuba independence only after forcing them to uptake the Platt Amendment (Authorized US to intervene militarily whenever it wanted & gave permanent lease on naval stations in Cuba to US)

  • Won 1900 reelection due to recovered economy and patriotism from pro-imperialists

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Gold Standard Act

  • Passed in 1900 during McKinley’s presidency

  • Established fixed rate (standard) at which paper money could be exchanged for gold

  • Aimed to aid business/creditor confidence and recover from economic depression

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New South

  • Dream/promise of prosperity from industrial expansion & agricultural diversification

  • Reality: overall, South went into poverty

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Kansas Exodus

  • 1879/80

  • Migration of 40-60k black ppl to Kansas for freedom & economic opportunity

  • Supported by Benjamin “Pap” Singleton

  • Idealistic image of Kansas as land of rural plenty, but most black migrants ended up as unskilled laborers

  • Most black ppl had to stay in South — more jobs in North, but black ppl excluded from them

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National Association of Colored Women

  • Founded in 1896

  • Advocated for women’s rights & racial uplift, right of black women to be seen just as “respectable” as white women instead of being 2nd class citizens

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Booker T. Washington

  • Gave the speech “Atlanta Compromise”

  • Born a slave

  • Headed Tuskegee Institute in Alabama

  • Urged not to fight segregation, appeal to white employers as docile black worker rather than unionized white worker

  • Believed fighting white power head-on impossible, focus on building up segregated communities

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Atlanta Compromise Speech

  • Given by Booker T. Washington at the Atlanta Cotton Exposition in 1895

  • Black ppl should abandon fight for civil/political rights, focus on getting farms/jobs rather than citizenship

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Tuskegee Institute

  • School located in Alabama

  • Headed by Booker T. Washington

  • Provided vocational education (education focused on training for a job)

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WEB DuBois

  • American sociologist, socialist, historian, and Pan-Africanist civil rights activist

  • Agitation for basic, civil, political, and educational rights, for black ppl to be recognized as full members of US society (contrast w/ Booker T. Washington)

  • Wrote The Souls of Black Folk

  • Founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

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Grandfather Clause

  • Law where descendants of people who could vote pre-CW would be exempted from voting eligibility tests (literacy, understanding the Constitution, etc)

  • Indirect way to eliminate black votes

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  • Taking away people’s voting rights

  • Mainly targeted black people

  • Poor/illiterate white people also affected

  • Thanks to the Supreme Court’s approval of __ laws, by 1940, only 3% of adult black southerners were registered to vote

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Plessy v. Ferguson

  • 1896

  • Supreme Court case that invalidated the Civil Rights Act (1875) by approving state laws for segregated facilities

  • “Separate but equal”

  • Decision was 7-1

    • Lone dissenter John Marshall Harlan said segregation violated liberty & right to participate equally in US society

  • Afterwards, states passed laws for segregation in all aspects of S life

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“Separate but Equal”

  • Arose from Plessy v. Ferguson case

  • Phrase used to justify segregation

  • Even so, black facilities were not actually “equal” to white counterparts -- either didn’t exist or were much worse

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Racial Terror

  • Violence by white people to achieve the political goal of reenforcing the racial hierarchy

  • Lynchings, pogroms

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  • Extra judicial murder by mob, most victims black men, 4k+ victims 1880-1950

  • Sometimes in secret, sometimes advertised as major events to attract big crowds, a community crime

  • Many victims accused of having raped/assaulted a white woman as justification

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Ida B Wells

  • Nation’s leading antilynching activist

  • Born a slave

  • Condemned lynching, which caused a mob to destroy her newspaper, Memphis Free Press

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The Lost Cause

  • By late 1800s, Southern governments put up monuments dedicated to __

  • Reimagined version of the past that romanticized slavery, the Old South, and the Confederacy

  • Other aspects of past changed too

    • CW remembered as a war of “brother against brother” where black ppl played no role

    • Slavery remembered as a minor issue of CW, Reconstruction as regrettable “Negro rule”

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New Immigrants

  • Immigrants from Southern & Eastern Europe (Italy, Russia, Austria-Hungary)

  • Large influx in 1890s, seeking jobs in US industrial centers

  • Stereotyped as distinct “races” who weren’t as civilized, justifying low wages & crime

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Immigration Restriction League

  • Founded 1894

  • Wanted to block illiterate immigrants, blamed “new immigrants” for crime, poverty, unemployment, inability to take part in democracy

    • Congress blocked illiterates in 1897 (later vetoed by Pres Grover Cleveland)

    • Law in 1903 barred “idiots, insane ppl, epileptics, paupers, anarchists”

    • Excluded Chinese immigrants → precedent for racialized immigration policy

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Chinese Exclusion Act

  • Passed 1882

  • Congress excluded all Chinese immigrants

    • First time race used to exclude entire group of ppl

    • Made permanent in 1902

  • Chinese in US needed to register w/ gov & carry ID papers or be deported

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United States v. Wong Kim Ark

  • Supreme Court case in 1898

  • Ruled that children of Chinese immigrants born in US are citizens (bc of 14th amendment)

  • But also ruled that Congress is allowed to set racial restrictions on immigration

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American Federation of Labor

  • Fall of Knights of Labor & rise of __ in 1890s showed shift from reformist past to more limited goals

  • Homestead and Pullman strikes showed that confronting large corporations was suicidal

  • Led by Samuel Gompers

  • “Business unionism”: Focus on getting higher wages/better working conditions through cooperation w/ employers rather than utopian “cooperative commonwealth”

  • 1890s, union membership rose but became less inclusive

    • Restricted to skilled workers, excluding vast majority of unskilled workers, black ppl, women, new immigrants

  • Focused on sectors of economy under small businesses rather than big industries

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Samuel Gompers

  • Founder/president of the American Federation of Labor

  • Believed labor movement should focus on getting higher wages/better working conditions rather than aim for a utopian “cooperative commonwealth”

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Queen Liliuokalani

  • Last ruler of Hawaii before being annexed by US

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William Randolph Hearst

  • His New York Journal & Joseph Pulitzer’s New York World were called the “yellow press”

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Joseph Pulitzer

  • His New York World & William Randolph Hearst’s New York Journal were called the “yellow press”

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Yellow Press

  • Newspapers promoting patriotic/nationalistic sentiment during US’s #imperialismphase

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USS Maine

  • The US battleship bombed on Feb 15, 1898

    • 270 people died

  • During time of Spain & Cuba’s conflict

  • US believed Spain sent the explosion

  • Spain rejected US demand for cease-fire and Cuban independence → President McKinley asked Congress to declare war

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Rough Riders

  • Led by Theodore Roosevelt on the charge up San Juan Hill — most publicized land battle of the Spanish-American War

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Platt Amendment

  • Cuba was granted independence only after McKinley forced the new government to approve the __ to Cuban constitution

    • Authorized US to intervene militarily whenever it wanted to

    • Gave permanent lease on naval stations in Cuba to US

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Open Door Policy

  • Set by Secretary of State John Hay

  • Asked Europe to grant equal access to American exports in new commercial spheres of influence in China

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Philippine War

  • Initially welcomed US intervention

    • Way to escape Spain’s power

    • Large planters wanted access to US markets

    • Nationalists & labor leaders admired democracy, social reform, self gov

  • Filipino leader Emilio Aguinaldo established provisional government after Dewey’s victory against Spain in Manila Bay

  • McKinley wanted US to stay in control of Philippines → Filipinos turn against US and the __ starts

    • Longer and bloodier than Spanish-American War

  • US control of Philippines — modernizing w/ railroads, harbors, US teachers and public health officials, modern agriculture — under guise of helping “little brown brothers”

  • US policies served local elites, poverty to majority of rural population

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Insular Cases

  • 1901-1904

  • Supreme Court cases that held that the Constitution does not fully apply to US’s newly acquired territories

  • Abandoned American sentiments: no tax w/o rep & gov by the people

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Anti-Imperialist League

  • Formed by opponents of US imperialism

    • Members: social reformers who believed US should focus on domestic issues, businessmen concerns about costs of maintaining overseas outpost, racists who didn’t want non-white ppl in US

    • Believed America’s mission is to set an example of self government

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  • Broad group of people who wanted to bring change

  • Advocated for workers’ voices, labor activists

  • Female reformers

  • Social scientists applying research to social problems

  • Middle class fearing big businesses

  • Individual fulfillment and self-determination

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Upton Sinclair, The Jungle

  • Unsparing approach to social ills

  • Described unsanitary slaughterhouses and rotting meat

  • Led to the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act of 1906

  • Example of “muckraking”

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Ida Tarbell

  • American writer, investigative journalist, biographer and lecturer

  • She was one of the leading “muckrakers” of the Progressive Era

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Louis D. Brandeis

  • Ally of labor movement, appointed by Wilson into supreme court

  • You can’t have “industrial slavery” in a nation of “political liberty”

  • Supported unions

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Socialist Party

  • Public ownership of major enterprises

  • Recognition of labor unions and suffrage, free college

  • Public ownership of railroads and factories - democratic control over economy

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Industrial Workers of the World

  • Rejected American Federation of Labor (too exclusive and most privileged)

  • Trade union, advocate workers revolution to seize means of production

  • Mobilize those excluded from AFL, worked on solidarity

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Collective Bargaining

  • Negotiation between employer and group of employees who want better conditions

  • Mass strikes among immigrant workers

  • Idea that strikes should be organized on democratic basis

    • IWW printed posters in multiple languages, insisted all ethnic groups be represented in committees

  • Lawrence Massachusetts children’s strike

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Mary “Mother” Jones

  • Union had only constitution, other side had bayonets

  • Jailed at 83 after addressing striking Colorado miners

  • Fiery supporter of worker unions

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  • Woman’s emancipation

  • Attacked traditional rules of sexual behavior

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Emma Goldman

  • Lithuanian immigrant

  • Lectured on various subjects, mainly emphasized birth control

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Margaret Sanger

  • Challenged laws banning contraceptive information and devices

  • Wrote newspaper columns and in her own journal about sex education

  • Started clinic

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Birth-Control Movement

  • Feminist movement

  • More knowledge about women choosing whether they will be a mother or not

  • Bodily autonomy and right to choose when to be a mother central to freedom

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Helen Keller

  • Became blind and deaf as an infant

  • Advocated radically for persons with disabilities, as well as birth control, socialism, female suffrage, laborer rights, world peace, member of IWW

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Society of American Indians

  • Brought together native american intellectuals of many tribal backgrounds

  • Discussed plights, goal to gain public exposure, no white control

  • Pan-Indian

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Carlos Montezuma

  • Founder of Society of American Indians

  • Outspoken critic of federal indian policy

  • Called for abolition of bureau of indian affairs in his newsletter

  • Forerunner of native american radicalism

  • Against outsiders having so much control over them and supported self-determination, but also wanted full citizenship and rights of americans

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John Dewey

  • Effective freedom — power to do specific things

  • Government act on behalf of those with little wealth/power

    • Powerful government was not necessarily threat to freedom

    • Govt could be activist and socially conscious

  • Supported pragmatism

  • Founded New School for Social Research

    • Scientifically evaluating public policy

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  • Policies judged by their practical effects, not longevity or relation to traditional religious or political beliefs

  • Experience over doctrine

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Seventeenth Amendment

  • U.S. senators elected directly by voters and not state legislatures

    • Good for progressives who wanted to expand scope of democracy

    • Contradictory to progressive ideals that wanted to restrict democracy to “fit” voters

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Jane Addams

  • Most prominent female reformer

  • Founded Hull House in Chicago

    • Settlement house to offer social services to immigrant poor

    • Inspired array of Chicago reforms like sanitation, building codes, shorter/safer labor, labor union rights

  • Govt action, not just social work, is essential to fix national problems

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National American Woman Suffrage Association

  • Not elitism anymore, broad coalition

  • Unionists, socialists, settlement house workers

  • Women in public sphere, new spirit of militancy, advertising

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Maternalist reforms

  • Promoted women’s child bearing and rearing abilities for economic independence

  • Gov should encourage simultaneous motherhood & economic independence — won support from feminists & ppl who supported traditional gender roles

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Alice Paul

  • American Quaker, suffragist, feminist, and women's rights activist

  • One of the main leaders and strategists of the campaign for the 19th amendment

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Carrie Nation

  • Radical member of the Temperance Movement

  • Noted for attacking alcohol-serving establishments with a hatchet

  • 6 feet tall and super strong

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Muller v. Oregon

  • 1908 Supreme Court decision

    • held that state interest in protecting women could override liberty of contract

  • Arguments were kinda sus

    • Louis D Brandeis used scientific and sociological studies to show that women were weaker than men and couldn't withstand the same long hours and hard labor

    • Said it was in governments interest to protect women because they bore children

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John Muir

  • Naturalist who organized Sierra Club

    • Preserve forests from uncontrolled logging

    • Religious connection between nature and god

  • Inspired by transcendentalism, lamented industrialization against nature

  • Broad following, many people supported nature as recreation space

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