Chapter 15: Textile Fibers

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81 Terms

1

Metallic

Composed of metal, plastic- coated metal, metalcoated plastic, or a core completely covered by metal.

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2

Chemical Analysis

Involves extracting the dye and characterizing or identifying its chemistry.

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3

Mineral Fibers

May be composed of silica obtained from rocks or sand.

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4

Delustrants

Finely ground particles of materials, such as titanium dioxide, that are introduced into the spinning dope.

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5

Metameric Colors

Those that appear to match in one set of lighting conditions but do not in another.

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6

Ramie

________ has frequent, short dislocations, and longer transverse striations.

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7

Pigment

Are microscopic, water- insoluble particles that are either incorporated into the fiber at the time of production or are bonded to the surface of the fiber by a resin.

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8

Lyocell

Composed of precipitated cellulose and produced by a solvent extrusion process where no chemical intermediates are formed.

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9

Rayon

Composed of regenerated cellulose, as well as manufactured fibers composed of regenerated cellulose in which substituents have replaced not more than 15 % of the hydrogens of the hydroxyl groups.

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10

Dye

An organic chemical that is able to absorb and reflect certain wavelengths of visible light.

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11

Simultaneous Contrast

The tendency of a color to induce its opposite in hue, value and intensity upon an adjacent color and be mutually affected in return.

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12

Thermal properties

________ relate to the softening and melting temperatures for manufactured fibers and the changes the fiber exhibits when heated.

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13

Wales

Rows of loops along the length of the fabric.

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14

Optical properties

________, such as refractive index, birefringence, and color, are those traits that relate to a fibers structure or treatment revealed through observation.

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15

FTIR

________ is the preferred method because it is not destructive of the fibers.

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16

Yarn

Continuous strands of textile fibers, filaments, or material in a form suitable for weaving, knitting, or otherwise entangling to form a textile fabric.

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17

Abaca

May present spiral elements, but often will have small crown-like structures.

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18

Microspectrophotometer

An instrument that allows for the color measurement of individual fibers.

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19

Novoloid

The fiber- forming substance is any long- chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85 % of a long- chain polymer of vinylidene dinitrile where the vinylidene dinitrile content is no less than every other unit in the polymer chain.

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20

Polyester

The fiber- forming substance is any long- chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85 % by weight of an ester or a substituted aromatic carboxylic acid, including but not restricted to substituted terephthalate units and parasubstituted hydroxybenzoate units.

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21

Denier

A direct numbering system in which the lower numbers represent the finer sizes and the higher numbers the larger sizes.

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22

Modacrylic

The fiber- forming substance is any long- chain synthetic polymer composed of less than 85 % but at least 35 % by weight of acrylonitrile units.

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23

Courses

Rows of loops across the width of the fabric.

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24

Vinyon

The fiber- forming substance is any long- chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85 % by weight of vinyl chloride units.

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25

Crimp

The waviness of a fiber expressed as ________ per unit length.

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26

Spandex

The fiber-forming substance is any long- chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85 % of a segmented polyurethane.

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27

Coir

________ comes from the husk of the coconut and, accordingly, is a very dense, stiff fiber easily identified microscopically.

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28

Nylon

The fiber- forming substance is any long- chain synthetic polyamide in which less than 85 % of the amide linkages are attached directly to two aromatic rings.

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29

Saran

The fiber- forming substance is any long- chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 80 % by weight of vinylidene chloride units.

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30

Mature cotton

________ has a flat, twisted, ribbon- like appearance that is easy to identify.

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31

Instrumental Analysis

Are objective and repeatable, the results are quantitative, and the methods can be standardized.

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32

Aramid

The fiber- forming substance is any long- chain synthetic polyamide in which at least 85 % of the amide linkages are attached directly to two aromatic rings.

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33

Anidex

The fiber- forming substance is any long- chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 50 % by weight of one or more esters of a monohydric alcohol and acrylic acid.

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34

Visual Examination

This method is subjective and because of day- to- day and observer- to- observer variations, it is not always a repeatable method.

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35

Technical Fiber

Used in cordage, sacks, mats, etc.

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36

Sisal

________ is relatively easy to identify due to its irregular lumen size, crystals, spiral elements, and annular vessels.

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37

Filaments

A type of fiber having indefinite or extreme length, such as silk or a manufactured fiber.

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38

Becke Line

A thin bright line that appears when light rays slightly converge or diverge.

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39

interference colors

The ________ seen after crossing the polarizing filters relate to a fibers material nature, orientation, and crystallinity.

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40

Acrylic

The fiber- forming substance is any long- chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85 % by weight of acrylonitrile units.

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41

Vinyl

The fiber- forming substance is any long- chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 50 % by weight of ________ alcohol units and in which the total of the ________ alcohol units and any one or more of the various acetal units is at least 85 % by weight of the fiber.

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42

lower refractive index

If the fiber has a(n) ________ than the mounting medium, it acts as a "diverging "lens and the light rays diverge from the fiber.

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43

Nonwoven Fabrics

An assembly of textile fibers held together by mechanical interlocking in a random web or mat, by fusing of the fibers or by bonding with a cementing medium.

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44

higher refractive index

If a fiber has a(n) ________ than the medium in which it is mounted, it acts as a converging lens, concentrating light within the fiber.

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45

Natural Fiber

any fiber that exists as a fiber in its natural state

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46

Manufactured Fiber

any fiber derived by a process of manufacture from any substance that, at any point in the manufacturing process, is not a fiber

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47

Protein fibers

composed of polymers of amino acids

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48

Cellulosic fibers

made of polymers formed from carbohydrates

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49

Mineral (inorganic) fibers

may be composed of silica obtained from rocks or sand

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50

Synthetic fibers

made of polymers that originate from small organic molecules that combine with water and air

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51

Staple Fibers

natural fibers (except silk) or cut lengths of filament, typically being 7/8-8in (2.2-28.5cm) in length

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52

Denier

a direct numbering system in which the lower numbers represent the finer sizes and the higher numbers the larger sizes

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53

Acrylic

the fiber-forming substance is any long-chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of acrylonitrile units

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54

Anidex

the fiber-forming substance is any long-chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 50% by weight of one or more esters of a monohydric alcohol and acrylic acid

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55

Aramid

the fiber-forming substance is any long-chain synthetic polyamide in which at least 85% of the amide linkages are attached directly to two aromatic rings

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56

Glass

the fiber-forming substance is glass

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57

Lyocell

composed of precipitated cellulose and produced by a solvent extrusion process where no chemical intermediates are formed

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58

Metallic

composed of metal, plastic-coated metal, metalcoated plastic, or a core completely covered by metal

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59

Modacrylic

the fiber-forming substance is any long-chain synthetic polymer composed of less than 85% but at least 35% by weight of acrylonitrile units

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60

Nylon

the fiber-forming substance is any long-chain synthetic polyamide in which less than 85% of the amide linkages are attached directly to two aromatic rings

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61

Polyester

the fiber-forming substance is any long-chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of an ester or a substituted aromatic carboxylic acid, including but not restricted to substituted terephthalate units and parasubstituted hydroxybenzoate units

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62

Saran

the fiber-forming substance is any long-chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 80% by weight of vinylidene chloride units

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63

Spandex

the fiber-forming substance is any long-chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% of a segmented polyurethane

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64

Vinyon

the fiber-forming substance is any long-chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of vinyl chloride units

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65

Yarn

continuous strands of textile fibers, filaments, or material in a form suitable for weaving, knitting, or otherwise entangling to form a textile fabric

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66

Z-twist; S-Twist

no twist at all

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67

Plied Yarn

formed from a number of smaller single yarns twisted together

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68

Fabric

a textile structure produced by interlacing yarns, fibers, or filaments with a substantial surface area in relation to its thickness

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69

Woven Fabrics

those fabrics composed of two sets of yarns, called warp and weft, and are formed by the interlacing of these sets of yarns

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70

Courses

rows of loops across the width of the fabric

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71

Wales

rows of loops along the length of the fabric

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72

Nonwoven Fabrics

an assembly of textile fibers held together by mechanical interlocking in a random web or mat, by fusing of the fibers or by bonding with a cementing medium

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73

Crimp

the waviness of a fiber expressed as crimps per unit length

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74

Cross-sectional shape

the shape of an individual filament when cut at a right angle to its long axis, is a critical characteristic of fiber analysis

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75

Animal Fibers

come either from mammals (hairs) or from certain invertebrates, such as the silkworm

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76

Manufactured fibers

the various families of fibers produced from fiber-forming substances, which may be synthesized polymers, modified or transformed natural polymers, or glass

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77

Synthetic fibers

those manufactured fibers that are synthesized from chemical compounds

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78

Spinning Dope Synthetic fibers

are formed by extruding a fiber-forming substance, through a hole or holes in a shower head-like device called a spinneret

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79

Polarized light microscope

the primary tool for the identification and analysis of manufactured fibers

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80

Pigment

are microscopic, water-insoluble particles that are either incorporated into the fiber at the time of production or are bonded to the surface of the fiber by a resin

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81

Visual Examination

this method is subjective and because of day-to-day and observer-to-observer variations, it is not always a repeatable method

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