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1492

  • New World Discovered

  • Beginning of the Columbian Exchange (Global Interconnectedness)

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1607

  • Founding of Jamestown

  • First Successful English Colony

  • Introduction of Slavery to North America

  • Huge Tobacco Farms

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1620

  • Pilgrims Arrive

  • Mayflower Compact: First Democratic Document in North America

  • Religious Colonies

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1730s-1740s

  • The First Great Awakening

  • First Widespread Unifying Movement

  • Religious Revival

  • Salvation Through Good Deeds

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1754-1763

  • French and Indian War

  • Demoralized Against the British

  • France kicked off of North America

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1763

  • Proclamation of 1763

  • End of Salutary Neglect

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1773

  • The Boston Tea Party

  • First Organized Rebellion Against British

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1775

  • Battle of Lexington and Concord

  • First Official Battle of the Revolution

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July 4th, 1776

  • The Declaration of Independence

  • Defined "Inalienable Rights" that the British had denied

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1777

  • Battle of Saratoga

  • Causes France to join the Revolutionary War

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1781

  • Battle of Yorktown

  • Surrender of British General Cornwallis

  • "End" of the Revolutionary War

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1783

  • Treaty of Paris

  • Official Independence from British

  • U.S. Recognized as Sovereign

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1786

  • Shay's Rebellion

  • Emphasized the Need for a Stronger Central Government

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1789

  • Constitutional Convention

  • Founding of a New Government

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1791

  • Bill of Rights Created

  • Antifederalists Appeased

  • Protect the Rights of the People

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1798

  • Alien and Sedition Acts

  • Expansion and Abuse of Federal Powers

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1800

  • Revolution of 1800

  • Jefferson Elected as President

  • Peaceful Transfer of Power from One Party to Another

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1803

  • Louisiana Purchase

  • Doubles the Size of the U.S.

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1803

  • Marbury Vs. Madison

  • Established the Principle of Judicial Review

  • Gave the Supreme Court the Right to Declare Legislative and Executive Acts Unconstitutional

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1812-1815

  • The War of 1812

  • Stalemate Peace

  • The "Second War for Independence"

  • Established a Northern Boundary with Canada

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1820

  • Missouri Compromise

  • Missouri Admitted as a Slave State

  • Maine Added as a Free State

  • Mason Dixion Line Divides the North and South

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1820s-1830s

  • The Second Great Awakening

  • New American Religion (Mormonism)

  • Inspired Social Reforms that Shaped American Culture

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1823

  • Monroe's Doctrine

  • Separates America from Europe's Conflicts

  • Defined American Power Internationally

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1830

  • Indian Removal Act

  • Jackson Breaks Promise Towards the Natives

  • Major Overstep of Executive Power

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1830s-1850s

  • Manifest Destiny

  • Massive Westward Expansion

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1848

  • Seneca Falls Convention

  • Women's Rights Convention for Suffrage

  • 'We hold these truths to be self evident that all men and women are created equal"

  • Societal Changes

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1848

  • Gold Rush Begins

  • Single largest westward expansion -Allows California to have enough population to become a state

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1832

  • Nat Turner's Rebellion

  • Major violent slave uprising

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1836

-Battle of the Alamo -America support of Texas Annexation, despite it being a failure

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1848

-Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo -Ended Mexican-American War -Mexican cession

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1850

-Compromise of 1850 -Fugitive Slave Act -Blew up North and South tensions

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1854

-Bleeding Kansas -Precursor to Civil War -First violence between the North and South

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1857

-Scott V. Sandford -First time government takes a stance on slavery

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1861-1865

Civil War

  • Bloodiest American war

  • Broken and Reunified

  • Emancipation Proclamation

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1862

Battle of Antietam

  • Allows the Emancipation Proclamation to be released

  • Made it an abolitionist war

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1863

Battle of Gettysburg

  • Turning point in the Civil War

  • South is now on the defensive

  • Turning point of sectionalism to nationalism

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April 15, 1865

Lincoln’s Assassination

  • 1st presidential assassination

  • Johnson becomes president

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1865

13th Amendment

  • Abolishes slavery - except as punishment for a crime

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1868

14th Amendment

  • Defines citizenship and protects citizens’ civil rights

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1870

15th Amendment

  • Universal male suffrage

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1877

Compromise of 1877

  • Ends Reconstruction

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1886

Haymarket Square Riot

  • Major workers’ rights riot

  • Led to violence and was considered a setback for the organized labor movement

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1887

Dawes Act

  • Authorized president to break of reservation land

  • Further destroyed Native Americans’ way of life

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1890

Sherman Antitrust Act

  • Banned businesses from colluding or merging to form monopolies

  • Some of the first legislation passed to limit big business

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1890

Massacre at Wounded Knee

  • Lakota men, women, and children slaughtered

  • Marked the end of Native resistance to the encroachment of white settlers

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1894

Pullman Strike

  • Resistance against big business

  • Ended by the federal government because it interfered with mail delivery

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1896

Plessy V. Ferguson

  • Upheld “separate but equal” ideology between whites and people of color

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1898

Spanish-American War

  • America asserts itself as an imperialist world power

  • Annexation of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Philippines

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1906

Meat Inspection Act/Pure Food & Drug Act

  • Made food more reliably safe

  • Progressive movement (for the people, not the businesses)

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1909

NAACP Founded (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)

  • Actively worked to end segregation and Jim Crow laws

  • Gave a voice to colored people

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1917

United States Enters World War I

  • U.S becomes the global power by the end of the war

  • Rise in innovation and technology

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1919

18th Amendment (Prohibition)

  • Success of progressive movement

  • Women had influence over the government

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Summer of 1919

Red Summer

  • Steep rise in racial violence and tensions

  • Whites push back against Black rights

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1919-1920

First Red Scare

  • Fear of socialism, anarchy, foreign immigration, etc.

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1920

19th Amendment

  • Gave women the right to vote across the nation

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1920s

Harlem Renaissance

  • Cultural Revolution for African Americans

  • First culture not based in slavery

  • Jazz

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1925

Scopes Trial

  • Major trial over evolution being taught in schools

  • Challenged fundamentalism

  • Emphasized the clash between fundamentalists and modernists

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1929

Black Tuesday

  • Huge stock market collapse

  • One of the first steps leading to the Great Depression

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1929-1939

Great Depression

  • Worst economic downturn in history

  • Weakens global economy

  • Starts New Deal legislation

  • 25% unemployment in the United States

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1932

Bonus Army

  • Veterans from WWI gather to demand compensation before the depression drains the treasury

  • Decreases Hoover’s popularity, increases FDR’s

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1934

Start of the Dust Bowl

  • Caused a mass migration out of the Great Plains to California

  • Increased unemployment

  • Spawned the Farm Security Administration as part of the New Deal

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1939-1945

World War II

  • Changed American society and manufacturing

  • Post-war baby boom changes demographics

  • Start of Cold War tensions

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June 6, 1944

D-Day

  • Largest amphibious front in history

  • Start of the push-back and defeat of the Axis powers

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1945

Drop atomic bombs

  • Nuclear weapons race started

  • First use of nuclear weaponry on humans

  • Contributed to the end of WWII in the Pacific

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1947

Truman Doctrine

  • Established that the U.S. would protect democratic nations from soviet/authoritarian forces through economic, political, and military assistance

  • Part of “containment” theory of communism

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1948

Marshall Plan

  • Major example of U.S. acting on Truman Doctrine

  • Provided markets and stable trading partners for American goods

  • Extension of bipartisanship

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1950

McCarthyism

  • Political suppression of left-wing ideologies in the United States

  • Part of the “Second Red Scare”

  • Spread fear of communism gained support for Cold War in America

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1950-1953

Korean War

  • Containment policy

  • Major proxy war during Cold War

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1954

Brown vs. Board of Education

  • End of legalized segregation in public schools

  • Overruled “separate but equal” Plessy v. Ferguson

  • Unanimous court decision

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1955

Montgomery Bus Boycott

  • Helped establish goal of integration

  • Non-violent protest (civil disobedience)

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1955-1975

Vietnam War

  • Ultimately a loss for the United States

  • Major example of U.S. involvement in foreign governments

  • Caused distrust of government within U.S.

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1957

Sputnik launched - Start of the Space Race

  • New era of the Cold War focused on technological advancement

  • Realization for America that the USSR was more advanced than previously assumed

  • First man-made object in space

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1961

Gideon vs. Wainwright

  • Requires that criminal defendents be given legal counsel regardless of wealth

  • Civil rights for impoverished population

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1962

Engel vs. Vitale

  • Reaffirmed separation of church and state by banning mandatory prayer in public schools

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1962

Cuban Missile Crisis

  • Peak point in Cold War when USSR and US came closest to nuclear conflict

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1963

March on Washington

  • 250k protested racial discrimination and demanded civil rights legislation

  • Massive peaceful protest, “I Have a Dream” speech

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1963

John F. Kennedy is assassinated

  • Largely televised, which was unique from past assassinations

  • End of optimism for the nation’s future

  • Lyndon B. Johnson takes office

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1964

Civil Rights Act of 1964

  • Massive piece of civil rights legislation

  • Prohibited discrimination in public accommodations

  • Hastened end of Jim Crow

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1965

Voting Rights Act (Selma)

  • Outlawed discriminatory voting practices

  • Enforced 15th amendment

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1965

Assassination of Malcolm X

  • Assassination of major civil rights figure

  • Not treated as importantly as the assassintation of MLK JR.

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1968

Democratic National Convention in Chicago

  • Youth and minorities became largely involved in voting

  • 68% of citizens voted

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1968

Martin Luther King Jr. assassinated

  • Prompted outbreaks of racial violence

  • Fasttracked equal housing bill

  • Angered black Americans

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1968

Bobby Kennedy assassinated

  • Prompted start of protection of presidential candidates from Secret Service agents

  • Assassination of presidential nominee

  • Second Democratic candidate ultimately lost election

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1968

Tet offensive

  • Weakening of public support of Vietnam

  • U.S. suffers heavy losses to advancing Viet Cong

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1969

Woodstock

  • Major counterculture art fair

  • Escape for Americans, encouragement of peace and anti-war messages

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1969

Moon landing

  • America ends the space race

  • First humans to step foot on the moon

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1970

Kent State massacre

  • First student killed in anti-war gathering (Jeffery Miller)

  • Deepend distrust of government as the National Guard killed the students

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1972

Watergate Scandal

  • Led to Nixon’s resignation

  • Deepened distrust of government

  • Many cabinet members also convicted of crimes

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1973

Roe v. Wade

  • Decriminalized abortion

  • Right to privacy

  • Major victory for women’s rights

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1979

Iranian Hostage Crisis

  • Decreased support of Jimmy Carter

  • Unsuccessful rescue mission

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1981

Outbreak of the AIDS pandemic

  • Major health crisis in the United States

  • Accelerated fear of homosexuality

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1981

Sandra Day O’Connor becomes 1st female Justice

  • Became the deciding vote in many important civil rights and environmental protection Supreme Court cases

  • Victory for women

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1989

Berlin Wall comes down

  • First step towards German reunification

  • Weakened East Germany and eastern Europe, led to dissolution of USSR

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1991

Soviet Union disbands

  • End of the Cold War

  • Democracy somewhat restored to eastern Europe

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1991

Operation Desert Storm

  • Kuwait liberated

  • Massively successful U.S. military move

  • First use of modern technology in warfare (cell phones, space equipment, etc.)

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1995

Oklahoma City Bombing

  • Largest domestic terrorist attack in United States

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1998

President Clinton impeached

  • 2nd impeached president

  • Weakened Democratic party for upcoming election

  • Lying under oath and obstruction of justice

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1999

Columbine High School massacre

  • First major school shooting

  • Started a chain reaction and rise of school shooters for the name of fame

  • Spawned new security measures in school

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2001

September 11th terrorist attacks in the U.S.

  • Changed relations with Islam and severely worsened them

  • Took away many rights we never get back w/ Patriot Act

  • Start of military invasion of middle east and search for Osama bin Laden

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2008

Election of President Obama

  • First African American president

  • Was a far left swing so it caused the likelihood of a far right swing to counter that

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