Psychology Chapters 1 and 2

studied byStudied by 34 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

structuralism

1 / 100

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

101 Terms

1

structuralism

based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how the elements were related

New cards
2

empirical

The idea that knowledge should be obtained through observation

New cards
3

Psychology as a Profession

Applies science to solve practical problems

New cards
4

Psychology as a Science

Research Psychology(science that studies) -behavior -underlying processes

New cards
5

Developmental psychology

How we change along the lifetime (emotionally)

New cards
6

Cognitive psychology

The higher mental functions, how we reason through problems, memory, language development, creativity

New cards
7

Personality psychology

What factors lead a person to have characteristic behaviors, lead to consistency of behaviors (How is it developed? What factors?)

New cards
8

Psychometrics psychology

Statistical analysis, number focused, design and verify tests, tests tests, ex. how to measure self esteem, happiness, depression

New cards
9

Social Psychology

the branch of psychology that studies persons and their relationships with others and with groups and with society as a whole

New cards
10

Experimental Psychology

the branch of psychology that uses experimental methods to study psychological issues (Traditional Psychology)

New cards
11

physiological psychology

the branch of psychology that is concerned with the physiological bases of psychological processes (what parts of the brain affect our behaviors?) (Biological Psychology)

New cards
12

Industrial/organizational or IO

Trained to deal with psychological issues within the workplace

New cards
13

Clinical Psychology

Identification and treatment of mental disorders and minor behavioral problems

New cards
14

Counseling Psychology

Focused on everyday problems, marriage, family, work

New cards
15

Educational Psychology

Asks questions like "what should the curriculum be?", "what educational methods should you choose?"

New cards
16

School Psychology

Behavior problems, family problems (very close to counseling, but a separate degree)

New cards
17

Seven Themes: Psychology is

empirical

New cards
18

Seven Themes: Theoretical diversity

different psychologists have different theories on human behavior

New cards
19

Seven Themes: Socio-historical context

Psychology is a product of its times ex. ww2 focused on ptsd etc..

New cards
20

Seven Themes: Multiple Causes

We all have multiple influences on us all the time, theres all kinds of reasons for people's behavior

New cards
21

Seven Themes: Cultural Heritage

Behavior is heavily influenced by Cultural Heritage

New cards
22

Seven Themes: Nature and Nurture

Nature: it's all in the genes, Nurture: How were you raised?

New cards
23

Seven Themes: Experiences are subjective

We are all a product of our experiences and expectations, our past influences how we interpret things and what we pay attention to

New cards
24

Physiology (parent psychology)

Gave psychology the scientific method

New cards
25

Philosophy (parent psychology)

Gave psychology the questions

New cards
26

Wilhelm Wundt

1879, first psych lab, argued for study of conciousness

New cards
27

consciousness

Awareness of the self, Wundt

New cards
28

G. Stanley Hall

1883 first U.S psychology lab

New cards
29

Structuralism founder

Edward Titchner

New cards
30

Structuralism

Based on the notion that the task of psychology is to separate consciousness into basic elements and study the elements

New cards
31

Structuralists used

introspection

New cards
32

Introspection

the careful, systematic self observation of one's own conscious experience

New cards
33

Functionalism founder

William James

New cards
34

Functionalism Definition

Based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function of consciousness as a whole, rather than its structure

New cards
35

What did James think of structuralism?

That splitting the consciousness into pieces was flawed, and it was more like a "flow" of thoughts

New cards
36

What book did William James write?

"Principles of Psychology"

New cards
37

Is functionalism practical?

yes, and they though structuralism was impractical

New cards
38

Which of the two branches flocked to the labs?

Structuralists

New cards
39

Which of the two branches were more interested in how people adapt behavior to the demands of the real world?

Functionalists

New cards
40

What is the modern form of functionalism?

Behaviorism and applied psychology

New cards
41

What is the modern form of structuralism?

neuroscience

New cards
42

Who was Sigmund Freud?

A physician who attempted to treat his patients mental disorders

New cards
43

Who created Psychoanalysis?

Sigmund Freud

New cards
44

Unconscious Self

Thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but still affect behavior

New cards
45

What did Freud think that slips of the tongues were?

That they were true feelings. Freudian Slip

New cards
46

What was the road to the unconscious?

Freud's belief that dreams expressed feelings that the dreamer was unaware of

New cards
47

What did Freud think caused psychological disturbances?

Personal conflicts on the unconscious level

New cards
48

How did Freud make his conclusions?

without the help of data collection or analysis, just by looking at his own patients

New cards
49

Why was Sigmund Freud controversial?

He talked about sexual desires and the development of children and their erotic desires, thought child development stopped at age 5 , and that we are not humans of change.

New cards
50

Who was the founder of behaviorism?

John B. Watson

New cards
51

Behaviorism Definition

A theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior

New cards
52

What psychology group removed consciousness from their study and began to test on animals?

Behaviorists

New cards
53

What group was B.F. Skinner a part of?

The radical behaviorists

New cards
54

What were B.F. Skinners most controversial thoughts?

Free will is an illusion, all behavior is governed by external stimuli

New cards
55

Operant Conditioning

behaviors that are followed by good outcomes tend ti be repeated, and behaviors followed by bad outcomes tend to not be repeated

New cards
56

What caused the humanist revolt?

Behaviorists and Freudians theories were thought to be dehumanizing

New cards
57

Why was behaviorism condemned by humanists?

They studied animal behavior, not humans

New cards
58

Why were Freudians condemned by humanists?

They believed behavior is dominated by primal sexual instincts

New cards
59

Humanists thought there were:

Unique human qualities, freedom, personal growth, self direction

New cards
60

Who were Carl Rodgers and Abraham Maslow?

The most influential humanists

New cards
61

What did Abraham Maslow create?

The pyramid of needs

New cards
62

What's at the bottom tier of the Pyramid of Needs?

Food, sleep, warmth, other basic needs

New cards
63

What's at the middle tier of the Pyramid of Needs?

Safety, belongingness, self esteem

New cards
64

What's at the top tier of the Pyramid of Needs?

Self Actualization

New cards
65

What was the main goal of humanism?

To reach self actualization

New cards
66

When did Psychology return to its roots? What roots?

1950s-1960s, Cognition and Physiology

New cards
67

Cognitive psychology

Decision making, reasoning, problem solving, language, and creativity

New cards
68

Physiological psychology (neuroscience)

Looked at how behavior is influenced by brain function, injuries to the brain, genetics, hormones, neurotransmitters

New cards
69

What are the contemporary views of psychology?

Cultural diversity, Evolutionary psychology, and Positive psychology

New cards
70

Why is Cultural diversity in Psychology important?

studies/experiments used to be exclusively on rich, white young men before the 1980s, now they're much more inclusive More focus on how behavior is the product of cultural experience

New cards
71

What is Evolutionary Psychology?

The study of the adaptive value of behaviors, (why do we do this?) A modern version of functionalism

New cards
72

What is positive psychology? and why is it important

Looks at what kind of experiences in our lives lead to positive outcomes. We used to only look at "what's wrong with us?"

New cards
73

Hypothesis

tentative prediction on the relationship between variables

New cards
74

Variable

any condition, even, or behavior that can be measured

New cards
75

Theory

organized system of ideas that explain a set of observations, must be testable

New cards
76

Operational definition

a precise definition in how the variables are defined in a study will be observed and measured

New cards
77

Naturalistic observation

behavior occurring in its natural environment

New cards
78

What are benefits of survey data collection? What's a disadvantage?

You can collect lots of data easily, adequately test opinion and attitude. People tend to answer in a socially acceptable manner, may not tell the truth.

New cards
79

What are the benefits of standardized tests data collection? What is a disadvantage?

You can generate lots of data and make easy comparisons. There's inevitable cultural bias.

New cards
80

What does a phsyiological measure determine?

What parts of the brain are being used, via FMRI scan

New cards
81

Social Desirability Bias

to answer self questions in a socially approved manner

New cards
82

Descriptive Research Design

Seeks to identify/describe behavior, lowest level/starting point of research

New cards
83

Correlation Research Design

Seeks to predict behavior, identify strength of relationships between 2 or more variables

New cards
84

Experimental Research Design

Seeks to understand behavior, researchers manipulate one variable to discover its effect on another

New cards
85

What are the disadvantages of Experimental research design?

Artificial settings, and ethical problems

New cards
86

What is the biggest advantage of Experimental Research?

you get a cause and effect statement

New cards
87

Sample

people who provide the data, try to have the closest to the set of the people we are trying to draw conclusions about

New cards
88

Population

whole set of people we are trying to draw conclusions about

New cards
89

Sampling bias

sample that doesn't accurately reflect the population

New cards
90

Placebo Effect

sometimes people behave in a certain way because they believe they should

New cards
91

Self Report Errors

social desirability bias, some people don't answer questions correctly

New cards
92

Experimental Bias

not fraud, usually unintentional, reason to use double blind experiments

New cards
93

Does science prove things?

no

New cards
94

Control

no treatment, ex placebo drug

New cards
95

Experimental

treatment, ex real drug in a drug trial

New cards
96

extraneous variables

anything that may affect subjects behavior, ex age differences between subjects

New cards
97

Deception in Research

sometimes knowing too much skews the results

New cards
98

Animal Research in Psychology

very rarely used, also many complicated restrictions to "protect" the animals

New cards
99

APA Guidelines

Set of ethic rules for human participation in studies

New cards
100

APA: Human participation in research must be:

Voluntary, do no harm, if deception is used, you must debrief them at some point, confidentiality, IRB approved

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 33 people
Updated ... ago
4.3 Stars(3)
note Note
studied byStudied by 80 people
Updated ... ago
4.3 Stars(4)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(3)
note Note
studied byStudied by 30 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 26119 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(223)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard71 terms
studied byStudied by 27 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard22 terms
studied byStudied by 41 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard48 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard25 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard34 terms
studied byStudied by 27 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard43 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard26 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)