Saliva and Urine - The Final Mega List

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The thin, colorless, slightly viscous fluid secreted at a rate and composition varying with stimulus by various glands in the mouth. This fluid is about 99.4% water and about 0.6% organic matter (mucin and amylase).

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blood group substances

Backronym of BGS, this component of saliva is used to determine the blood type of secretors.

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three pairs

Saliva is secreted by this many pairs of glands in the human mouth.

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sublingual, submandibular, parotid

These are the three pairs of salivary glands in the human mouth.

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exocrine glands

The sublingual, submandibular, and parotid glands are all these types of glands due to secreting saliva through ducts to an epithelial surface.

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parotid gland

When a person is awake, this pair of glands secrete up to 20-50% of the saliva output (serous fluid), but contributes almost no saliva when a person is asleep. This is the largest pair of glands and facilitates mastication (chewing) and swallowing to begin the digestion of starches through the production of amylase.

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submandibular gland

When a person is asleep, this pair of glands provides most of the nocturnal output of saliva (65-70% of saliva in the oral cavity). This pair of glands is smaller than the parotid glands but secretes a mixture of serous fluid and mucus.

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submaxillary gland

The other term for "submandibular gland."

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sublingual gland

This pair of salivary glands is the smallest of the three pairs and produces about 5% of saliva in the oral cavity. This pair of glands produces mucin, the viscous component of saliva.

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This condition is known as "dry mouth." Causes for this condition include radiation therapy (can cause permanent damage) and chemotherapy (temporary damage), which causes hyposalivation.

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To prevent dry mouth, one should swish their mouth with this.

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Digestion, protection, and maintenance of teeth are all functions of what?

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Plasma cells within the salivary glands produce antibodies for which type of immunoglobulin?

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buffering capacity

What characteristic of saliva helps to protect tooth enamel and contribute to dental health?

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Saliva at a crime scene is a possible source of what?

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maltose and dextrose

These two saccharides make up starch

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beta amylase

Unlike humans who have alpha amylase, plants have what kind of amylase?

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Which sex has a higher overall salivary flow rate?

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Rape Homicide Case

Book written by E. Jones about a case where a partial DNA profile was obtained from the bite mark of the victim's breast after she had been in the water for almost 6 hours.

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This is another name for alpha-amylase. It is found in the saliva of humans and some other animals (pigs, rodents, and primates).

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Amylase will likely not be found in this class of animals due to their very low starch consumption.

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AMY1 and AMY2

These are the two types of alpha amylases found in humans. Both break down starch and glycogen. They are found in serum and tissue homogenizes of male and female reproductive tissue.

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chromosome 1

This chromosome codes for the two different amylases in humans.

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This type of alpha amylase is called the "salivary variety." It is found in breast milk, sweat, amniotic fluid, cervical mucus, and tears.

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This type of alpha amylase is called the "pancreatic variety." It is found in the pancreas, vaginal secretions, seminal plasma, and fecal material.

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Amylase has been reported to be found in this type of secretion (inside the nose).

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Finding amylase, even at a high concentration, is at best [this type of test] for saliva.

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Nuclear Squamous Epithelial Cells

Backronym of NSEC. They are found natively in many places. They are found in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells, cheek cells, vaginal swabs/secretions, and inside the front of men's underwear (tip of the penis). When these are found in a case, they can indicate a mixture of DNA because these cells contain nuclei.

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urethral meatus

The opening through which urine leaves the body.

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Anuclear Squamous Epithelial Cells

Backronym of ASEC. Also known as skin cells, keratinized epithelial cells, and keratinocytes.

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This enzyme starts the digestion of carbohydrates by breaking the alpha 1-4 linkages of the glucose monomers.

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endo action

This term is used to describe cleaving a starch molecule in the middle. This usually occurs in animals at the presence of alpha amylase.

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exo action

This term is used to describe cleaving a starch molecule at its ends. This usually occurs in plants at the presence of beta amylase.

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Due to amylase being found in other body fluids besides saliva, it is not considered ____________ for saliva.

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UV light

This type of light can aid in the detection and location of saliva stains.

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starch-iodine test

This early form of amylase test is easy to perform and results in starch becoming dark blue in color. When amylase is present, the blue color disappears due to the hydrolysis of the starch. Both alpha and beta amylases may give a positive reaction to this test, but alpha amylase is able to break the starch down completely, resulting in definite clearing of the blue color.

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Starch Iodine Radial Gel Diffusion Test

This is a test in which amylase hydrolyzes starch. The company that produces this test is Abacus Diagnostics.

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Phadebas Test

A presumptive test for saliva, the amylase substrate is insoluble in Cibacron blue dye, which is cross-linked to starch and put into a tablet form. Amylase then hydrolyzes the polymer into a soluble blue starch, which can be measured colorimetrically at 620 nm.

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The SALIgAE Saliva test can detect these levels of saliva.

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negative result

With the SALIgAE Saliva Test, this result may indicate that there is either no saliva or that there is saliva present, but it is below the test's detection level.

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When colorless SALIgAE comes into contact with salivary amylase, it turns this color. The exact mechanism for this reaction is not known.

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SERATEC is (supposedly) a confirmatory test for human saliva due to the detection of this type of amylase.

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SERATEC uses this number of monoclonal antibodies specific for human salivary alpha-amylase

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PCR typing

In this type of DNA profile, only a few buccal cells (NSEC) may generate a complete profile.

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48 hours

Research with DNA typing has shown that NSEC survive submersion in water and on human cadaver skin for roughly this amount of time.

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absence of saliva

Absence of high level of amylase and/or absence of NSEC or the absence of a DNA profile after PCR typing is not indicative of this.

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epithelial cell

If there is DNA in urine, it is due to this type of cell found from the urethral lining. More cellular material is found in female urine samples than male urine samples.

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Upon death, the relaxation of these types of bladder muscles can lead to the release of urine. This is important because if the body is moved from the crime scene to another location, the urine stain at the original crime scene can become important evidence.

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urea and creatinine

The following urine tests are used to detect which chemicals in urine?

  • Litmus Paper Test

  • DMAC

  • Creatinine Picrate Test

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This is a type of arthritis characterized by deposits of uric acid crystals in the joints. It typically comes from eating too much meat.

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King's Disease

The nickname for the disease "gout."

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urine analysis

The following factors can affect what?

  • Diet (meat)

  • Time of day sample was collected

  • Medication

  • Health

  • Age of the evidence stain

  • Heat

  • Humidity

  • Substrate on which sample was deposited

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Urine is formed in these organs through the process of filtering out waste products from the blood.

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A duct leading from the kidney to the urinary bladder.

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A tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.

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The amount of urea found in urine is directly related to this.

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This soluble molecule with ABH activities are present in serous and mucous secretions.

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This soluble molecule is present in plasma, but is not secreted in other body fluids.

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Se gene

The presence of this gene is necessary for the expression of the ABH activity in various body fluid secretions. It results in people being "secretors." A person can have a genotype of homozygous dominant or heterozygous.

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polymorphic enzymes

These are proteins inside the red blood cell that mainly serve as catalysts for converting one substance to another. They can be used to differentiate humans.

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plasma proteins

These proteins are mainly used for transport. They can be used to differentiate humans.

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Urine also contains creatinine, which is a breakdown product of this substance.

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Tamm-Horsfall Protein

This protein is specific to urine, but it is also found in many animal species. It is also known as "THP." This protein is detected in the RSID Urine test.

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Another name for THP.

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Group Specific Component

Also known as GSC, this is a polymorphic protein but not an enzyme.

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Also known as HP, this is a polymorphic protein but not an enzyme.

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meat and soup

These two food items contain high amounts of creatine, which alters the composition of urine.

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Jaffe Reaction Product

This chemical is produced in the Jaffe Test, which detects creatinine.

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creatinine picrate

This substance is produced when creatinine reacts with picric acid.

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Jaffe Test

In this test, creatinine reacts with picric acid in an alkaline environment to form bright reddish-orange product, called creatinine picrate.

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substrate control

If it is suspected that a substrate can destroy creatinine when they come into contact, it is best to use this. Having this will help indicate if a negative result is truly negative, or if the substrate itself in which the liquid urine is deposited is detrimental to the creatinine content.

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Applesauce Case

In this case, a 16-year-old boy stuck his penis in applesauce and made his 4-year-old cousin lick it off. When our professor tested the applesauce for semen (AP) and urine, it kept coming out positive. She had to use a substrate control and found out that the applesauce itself affected the urine test due to the additives.

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serum, saliva, sweat, semen

Creatinine, creatine, urea, and uric acid have been detected in these other body fluids.

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The Jaffe Test is not specific for creatinine. (T/F)

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This carbohydrate is reported to produce an orange color with alkaline picrate.

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positive reaction

The Jaffe Test is reported to show this type of reaction with ascorbic acid, pyruvate, acetone, glycocyamidine, protein, resorcinol, and hydroquinone.

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The identification of creatinine as an indicator of the presence of urine is dependent on _______________ of deposited creatinine. Dilution of the test sample should be kept at a minimum for better results.

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Other body fluids, such as perspiration, also contain creatinine. If needed, it can be helpful to use your nose to detect this.

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This type of microbe can act as an inhibitor to DNA analysis.

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This is a very sensitive reagent for the detection of amides and amines (found in urine) in a strongly acidic solution.

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Schiff's base

DMAC forms this with amines and amides to give a magenta color product. It is defined as "[this], or imine, is a substance that is formed when primary amines react with aldehydes and ketones. They have the general form C=NR."

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false positive

When reacting with DMAC, the following substances can give what type of result?

  • Semen and milk (both contain urea and polyamines; semen appears more orange than urine)

  • Some vaginal secretions

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False positives can be overcome by __________ the concentration of the DMAC solution to 0.005%. At this concentration, weak urine stains will not give a positive reaction.

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A chemical that comes from the breakdown of proteins and is the end product of metabolism, representing approximately 80-90% of the total urinary nitrogen. It is a major component of urine.

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jack bean

The litmus paper test is based on the reaction between urea and urease to form ammonia and carbon dioxide. To perform this test, the urease used in it is extracted from this plant.

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urea aminohydrolase

A systematically known term for "urease."

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This is a hydrolase which acts upon an amino group.

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This is an enzyme, a hydrolase, that hydrolyzes urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide.

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After incubating at 37°C for 30 minutes, a red or neutral colored litmus paper will change to this color to represent a positive result.

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Remembering the Murder You Didn't Commit

This is the name of the article written about the Beatrice Six case.

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Beatrice Six Case

This case was about the murder of Helen Wilson in Beatrice, Nebraska, where our professor was a part of processing the evidence. In this case, Wilson was raped (anally and vaginally) and smothered. Our professor received evidence from Wilson's body including hair, semen, and blood samples. From Wilson herself, she was found to be blood type O and a secreter with GC type 1. At the scene, blood type B was found, along with GC type 2-1, and the evidence was determined to come from a non-secretor.

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The Beatrice Six

The following six individuals were labeled as suspects in Helen Wilson's rape and murder.

  • Joseph White

  • Tom Winslow

  • Debra Shelden

  • JoAnn Taylor

  • James Dean

  • Kathy Gonzalez

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James Dean and Debra Shelden

These two people in the Beatrice Six case were the only ones that our professor did not receive samples from.

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Joseph White

Out of the six suspects, this man was the only one to say that he was innocent. When he asked for DNA testing during his trial, his motion was denied. It was only later on during his sentence that the motion to perform DNA testing was allowed, which exonerated all suspects.

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Wayne Price

This man was considered a "conflict of interest" in the Beatrice Six case due to being the psychologist of five out of the six suspects while also working as a reserve deputy. He was the one who suggested that they suffered from "repressed memory."

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Burdette Searcey

This man began working as a private investigator to Helen Wilson's daughter for the Beatrice Six case.

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Bruce Allen Smith

This man was the actual person who killed Helen Wilson in Beatrice, Nebraska. He had died in prison from AIDS in 1992, so he was never able to be put on trial.

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All She Ever Wanted

In this book, it follows the case of Teena Brandon's rape and murder. In this case, two men wanted to "prove she was a woman," followed by them raping and killing her, but leaving her 1-year-old son alive. It is unclear if Teena was a trans man, since [they] wore masculine clothes and dated other women, and hated being called a lesbian.

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Boys Don't Cry

This is the movie adaptation of "All She Ever Wanted," starring Angelina Jolie as Teena Brandon.

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last name unknown, first name unknown

The meaning of "LNU, FNU."

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