Biology: Mitosis (copy)

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38 Terms

1

binary fission

prokaryotic reproduction divides in half, making an exact clone

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2

cell cycle

interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis

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3

chromatid

one half of a duplicated chromosome a copy of a DNA molecule produced by replication

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4

how DNA replicates

the chromosome splits into 2 identical strands of DNA called sister chromatids, connected at the centromere

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5

how many chromosomes per human cell

46

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6

G2

prep for mitosis, during interphase

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7

mitotic phase

stage when the cell is actively dividing: mitosis and cytokinesis

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8

why do cell replicate?

multicellular organisms: replace lost cells and grow single celled: reproduction

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9

mitosis

division of somatic (body) cells, specifically - division of the nucleus

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10

interphase

first and longest stage of the cell cycle Three parts: G1, S phase, and G2

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11

G1

growing and normal life processes

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12

S phase

DNA is copied

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13

chromosome

a threadlike structure that carries DNA before replication: a single chromatid after replication it has 2 chromatids connected by a centromere

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14

chromatin

'thread' that makes up chromosomes made up of protein, RNA, and DNA chromatin spins into rods, making chromosomes, during prophase

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15

Four stages of Mitosis

prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase (PMAT)

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16

prophase

longest phase in mitosis chromatin (threads) is packaged into chromosomes (rods) to make them easier to move (in animal cells) centrioles move to opposite ends of the cell + spindle fibers form between poles nuclear membrane disappears

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17

metaphase

chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell, spindle fibers attached to centromeres of chromosomes

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18

anaphase

Chromatids separate and begin to move to the opposite ends/poles of the cell.

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19

telophase

chromatids reach the the poles nuclear membrane starts to reform

mitosis ends

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20

mitotic spindle

The spindle fibers that control the chromosomes in mitosis

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21

cytokinesis

splits the cell in two --splitting of the cytoplasm pinches the cell in half each new cell has nucleus w/ identical chromosomes

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22

cleavage furrow

in animal cells; where cell membrane pinches to split the cell in two

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23

cell plate

plant cells have cell wall -- can't pinch in a midline dividing the cell that eventually becomes the cell wall divides the cells during cytokinesis

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24

Acronym for cell cycle

IPMATC Intergalactic penguins might attack, take care Interphase, (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase), cytokinesis

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25

cancer

Cells skip checkpoints and divide uncontrollably, creating tumors

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26

Cell Cycle Control System

checkpoints where the cell cycle stops until a go-ahead signal is received

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27

G1 Checkpoint

most important checkpoint, checks for growth if signal received, will usually divide completley if signal not received, will exit cycle and enter G0 phase

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28

G0 phase

nondividing state in which a cell has left the cell cycle

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29

Signals in the cell cycle

Growth factors Density-dependent inhibition Anchorage dependence

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30

Tumor

mass of rapidly dividing (cancerous) cells that can damage surrounding tissue

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31

Benign Tumor

a mass of abnormal cells that remains at the site of origin

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Malignant Tumor

A cancerous tumor that is invasive enough to impair the functions of one or more organs (Metastasis)

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33

metastasis

The spread of cancer cells beyond their original site usually through blood stream most dangerous property of cancerous cells

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34

possible causes of cancer-causing mutations

smoking, drugs, alcohol uv radiation, x rays, radon gas certain chemicals (ex. asbestos) or viruses (HIV) certain hormones (excess estrogen) bad diet, no exercise, genetics, age, random chance

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35

Common cancer treatments

surgery, radiation, chemotherapy

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36

Chemotherapy drugs

Taxol - freezes the mitotic spindle after it forms thus stopping mitosis at metaphase Vinblastin- prevents the mitotic spindle from forming

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37

Sister chromatids

a chromosome consists of 2 identical strands of DN called sister chromatids

  • each chromatid is a copy of a DNA molecule produced by replication

  • the chromatids are held together at the centromere

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38

cell division

  • Single-celled organisms use cell division for asexual reproduction

  • types: meiosis and miosis

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