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Demography

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57 Terms
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Demography

The study of population characteristics.

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Ecumene

The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.

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Arable Land

land suitable for growing crops

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Arithmetic Density

The total number of people divided by the total land area.

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Physiological Density

The number of people per unit area of arable land

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Agricultural Density

The number of farmers per unit area of farmland

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Social Stratification

Categorizing people based on socioeconomic factors such as wealth, income, and race.

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Overpopulation

The lack of necessary resources to meet the needs of the population in an area

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Carrying Capacity

The ability of the land to sustain a certain number of people

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Redistricting

Adjusting boundary lines in response to population changes

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Population Pyramid

Also known as age-sex composition graph; it shows the age and sex demographics of an area

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Crude Death Rate (CDR)

The total number of deaths in a year per 1000 people in a defined area.

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Crude Birth Rate (CBR)

The total number of live births per year for each 1,000 people

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Natural Increase Rate (NIR)

Difference between the number of live births and the number of deaths occuring in a year, divided by the mid-year population of that year, multiplied by 1,000

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Doubling Time

Amount of time it takes for the population of a region to double

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Mortality

Study of death rates/actual ability of an individual to die

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Total Feritility Rate (TFR)

The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years (15-49) in a defined area

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Infant Mortality Rate

The number of children who die before the age of 1

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Life Expectancy

Average number years someone is expected to live

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Emigration

Process of leaving one country to move to another

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Immigration

Process of moving to a new country with the intention of staying and living there

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Demographic Transition Model (DTM)

Categorizes countries' population growth rates and economic structures

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Epidemiological Transition Model

a model developed by Abdel Omran which focuses on the distinctive causes of death in each stage of the DTM.

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Pandemic

Disease that has only spread regionally

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Zero Population Growth

When the birth rate equals the death and the natural increase rate approaches zero.

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Neo-Malthusians

People who believed in Malthusian Theory and in the idea that population was not only affecting food production but also other resources

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Malthus Critics

People who don't believe in Malthusian Theory because food production isn't limited as it can grow.

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Boserup Theory

Belief that the more people there are, the more hands there are to work, rather than just more mouths to feed.

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Antinatalist policy

discourages people from having children in order to lower fertility rates

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Pronatalist policy

encourages people to have more children in order to increase fertility rates

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Ravenstein's Laws of Migration

theory highlighting the inverse relationship between the distance and volume of migration between a source and destination

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Dependency Ratio

a value comparing the working to the nonworking parts of a population

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Migration

permanent or temporary relocation of people from one place to another

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Push Factors

something that encourages people to move away from a certain area

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Pull factors

something the encourages someone to move to a certain area

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Intervening Obstacle

environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration

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Intervening Opportunities

A feature of an area that causes a migrant to choose a destination other than his original one

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Counter Migration

each migration flow produces a movement in the opposite direction

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Migration Transition

change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition.

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Gravity Model

assumes that the size and distance between two cities or countries will influence the amount of interactions that include migration, travel, and economic activity.

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Internal Migration

movement within the same country

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Voluntary Migration

when people choose to relocate

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Forced Migration

when migrations have no choice but to move (involuntary migration)

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Chain Migration

migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there

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Step Migration

Migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to a town and city

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Rural-to-urban

Movement of people from rural settlements to urban areas in search of jobs.

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Refugee

People who have fled war, violence, persecution or conflict and cross an international border in order to find safety in another country.

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Internally Displaced Person (IDP)

Someone who has been forced to migrate for similar reasons as a refugee but has not migrated across an international border

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Asylum Seeker

Someone who has migrated to another country in the hope of being recognized as a refugee

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Transnational Migration

when people move from one country to another, or internationally rather than internally (ex: moving from Mexico to the U.S)

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Transhumance

the process of herders moving with their animals to different pastures during different seasons

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Guest Workers

transnational migrants who relocate to a new country to provide labor that isn't available locally

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Guest worker policies

regulate the number of workers who can temporarily enter each country to work in specific industries for a defined amount of time

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Brain drain

when migration out of a country is made up of many highly skilled people

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Xenophobia

a strong dislike of people of another culture

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Remittances

Money migrants send back to their family and friends in the country they left

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Ethnic Enclaves

neighborhoods where people from similar cultures live together and assert cultural distinction from the dominant group

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