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The Odyssey by Homer

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English

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1

The Odyssey by Homer

A Greek warrior undertakes an arduous journey back to his homeland and his loyal wife and son, experiencing many fantastical adventures along the way.

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Zeus

King of the gods

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Circe

The beautiful witch-goddess who transforms Odysseus's crew into swine when he lands on her island. With Hermes' help, Odysseus resists Circe's powers and then becomes her lover, living in luxury at her side for a year.

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Aeolus

God of the winds

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Anticlea

Odysseus' mother

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Eurymachus

suitor of Penelope

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Odysseus

(main character) Son of Laertes and Anticleia, husband of Penelope and father of Telemachus. A cunning, shrewd and eloquent hero. Came up with the idea of the Trojan horse which led the Greeks to victory against Troy. "Man of many wiles".

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Clytemnestra

(Greek mythology) wife of Agamemnon who had him murdered when he returned from the Trojan War

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Hermes

Messenger of the gods

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Calypso

The beautiful nymph who falls in love with Odysseus when he lands on her island-home of Ogygia. Calypso holds him prisoner there for seven years until Hermes, the messenger god, persuades her to let him go.

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Tiresias

blind prophet who advised Odysseus

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Laertes

Odysseus' father

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Penelope

Wife of Odysseus

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Achilles

Greatest Greek warrior, husband of Briseis whom Agamemnon steals, only vulnerable place is his heel, prophecy that he would die in the Trojan war, which he does at the hand of Paris

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Poseidon

God of the sea

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Telemachus

Odysseus and Penelope's son

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Argos

Odysseus' dog

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Agamemnon

King and leader of Greek forces

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Polyphemus

the Cyclops who imprisoned Odysseus

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Alcinous

king of the Phaeacians, to whom Odysseus tells his story

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Helen

Wife of Menelaus, Queen of Sparta

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Eumaeus

old swineherd and friend of Odysseus

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Eurycleia

the old nurse of Odysseus and Telemachus, attendant of Penelope

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Scylla

Sea monster of gray rock. Each of her six heads eats a sailor.

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Antinous

leader among the suitors

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Charibdis

A living whirlpool that threatens the lives of Odysseus' entire crew.

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Naussica

daughter of Alcinous, welcomes Odysseus to Phaecia

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Athena

Goddess of wisdom

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Joseph Cambell

Author of "A Hero with a Thousand Faces".

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Joseph Cambell's hero journey

twelve steps

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Call to Adventure

The hero receives an invitation to begin a quest or journey

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Refusal of the Call

The hero feels the fear of the unknown and tries to turn away from the adventure, however briefly. Alternately, another character may express the uncertainty and danger ahead.

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Supernatural Aid

Once the hero has committed to the quest, consciously or unconsciously, his or her guide and magical helper appears, or becomes known.

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Crossing the First Threshold

This is the point where the person actually crosses into the field of adventure, leaving the known limits of his or her world and venturing into an unknown and dangerous realm where the rules and limits are not known.

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Belly of the Whale

The hero is now fully engulfed in the unfamiliar world, facing the dangers it holds.

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Road of Trials

Hero undergoes a series of tests, becoming strong or wise enough to complete the quest.

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Meeting with the Goddess

This is the point when the person experiences a love that has the power and significance of the all-powerful, all encompassing, unconditional love that a fortunate infant may experience with his or her mother.

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Woman as Temptress

temptations that may lead the hero to abandon or stray from his or her quest

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Atonement with the Father

Character must deal with the person or entity in his/her life that holds power over him/her.

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apotheosis

elevation to divine status; the perfect example of something

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The Ultimate Boom

The achievement of the goal of the quest

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Refusal of the Return

Having found bliss and enlightenment in the other world, the hero may not want to return to the ordinary world to bestow the boon onto his fellow man.

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The Magic Flight

The hero experiences adventure and perhaps danger as he or she returns to life as it was before the Call to Adventure.

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Rescue from Without

Just as the hero may need guides and assistance on the quest, oftentimes he or she must have powerful guides and rescuers to bring him or her back to everyday life. Sometimes the hero does not realize that it is time to return, that he or she can return, or that others are relying on him or her to return.

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The crossing of the return threshold

This is the step where the hero must make the transition back into the familiar world after the journey is complete.

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Master of Two Worlds

Achieving a balance between the material and spiritual (the inner and outer world).

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Freedom to Live

Mastery leads to freedom from the fear of death, which in turn is the freedom to live. This is sometimes referred to as living in the moment, neither anticipating the future nor regretting the past.

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48

Carl Jung

neo-Freudian who created concept of "collective unconscious" and wrote books on dream interpretation

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shadow

the worst part of a human

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Persona

Greek for "mask." The face or character that a speaker shows to his or her audience.

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Archetypes (Jung)

Emotional symbols that are common to all people and have been formed since the beginning of time

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animus/anima

the little girl inside yourself

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syzygy

an alignment of celestial bodies

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unconscious

according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware.

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ego

the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.

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introvert

a shy person

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extrovert

an outgoing person

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types of heros

American hero, classic hero, tragic hero, greek hero, antihero

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American Hero

hero bound to nature, innocent and naïve, no family or family tradition, and spends life on internal quest

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Classic Hero

Attractive, successful; embodies the values of his society.

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tragic hero

a protagonist with a fatal flaw which eventually leads to his demise

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Greek Hero

-Lives an extraordinary life-Perfectly ordinary human being-Odysseus

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Anti-hero

a central character in a story, movie, or drama who lacks conventional heroic attributes.

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Oedipus

a tragic king of Thebes who unknowingly killed his father Laius and married his mother Jocasta

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Jocasta

Mother and wife of Oedipus

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Creon

the brother of Jocasta and uncle of Antigone who became king of Thebes after the fall of Oedipus

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Tiresias

Predicts Oedipus

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Chorus

A group of characters in Greek tragedy (and in later forms of drama), who comment on the action of a play without participation in it.

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Corinth

Oedipus' childhood home

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Hubris

excessive pride

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Chiton

A Greek tunic, the essential (and often only) garment of both men and women, the other being the himation, or mantle.

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Parados

entrance of the chorus

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Skene

building used as dressing room

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Hamartia

tragic flaw

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Pathos

Appeal to emotion

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Catharsis

a release of emotional tension

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Proskenium

A columned arch located at the rear of the stage and in front of the skene supporting a porch-like projection from the second story of the skene.

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78

Cothurni

High platformed shoes

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79

Antigone

daughter of Oedipus and Jocasta

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Ismene

Sister of Antigone

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sentry

a soldier stationed to keep guard or to control access to a place

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Polynices

Brother of Eteocles and son of Oedipus; died during the Argive expedition against Thebes to force his brother out.

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Eteocles

Antigone's brother that died in battle and recieved a hero's burial

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Haemon

Antigone's young fiancé and son to Creon. Haemon appears twice in the play. In the first, he is rejected by Antigone; in the second, he begs his father for Antigone's life. Creon's refusal ruins his exalted view of his father. He too refuses the happiness that Creon offers him and follows Antigone to a tragic demise.

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85

Eurydice

Creon's wife

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Megareus

Creon's son that is killed in battle

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87

"Death is the price - you're right. But all too often the mere hope of moneyhas ruined many men."

Creon

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88

"He is my brother and - deny it as you will - your brother too. No one willever convict me for a traitor."

Antigone

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89

"Exactly when did you last see the gods celebrating traitors? Inconceivable!"

Creon

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90

"First, myself, I've got to tell you, I didn't do it, didn't see who did - be fair,don't take it out on me."

Sentry

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91

"Man, the master, ingenuous beyond all measure, past all dreams, the skillswithin his grasp—he forges on, now to destruction, now again to greatness!"

Chorus

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92

"You, with your eyes fixed on the ground - speak up. Do you deny you didthis, yes or no?"

Creon

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93

"I, for one, I'll beg the dead to forgive me—I'm forced, I have no choice—Imust obey the ones who stand in power."

Ismene

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94

"Dear god, shout it from the rooftops. I'll hate you all the more for silence—tell the world!"

Antigone

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"My countrymen, the ship of state is safe. The gods who rocked her, after along, merciless pounding in the storm, have righted her once more."

Creon

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of my regime...these are the instigators, I'm convinced—they've perverted my ownguard, bribed them to do their work." "No, from the first there were certain citizens who could hardly stand the spirit

Creon

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97

"It wasn't Zeus, not in the least, who made this proclamation—not to me. Nordid that Justice, dwelling with the gods beneath the earth, ordain such laws formen. Nor did I think your edict had such force that you, a mere mortal, couldoverride the gods."

Antigone

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98

"And it is you—your high resolve that sets this plague on Thebes...And so thegods are deaf to our prayers, they spurn the offerings in our hands, the flame ofholy flesh."

Tiresias

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99

"No, reverend old Tiresias, all men fall, it's only human, but the wisest fallobscenely when they glorify obscene advice with rhetoric—all for their own gain."

Creon

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100

"Wisdom is by far the greatest part of joy, the reverence towards the gods mustbe safeguarded."

Chorus

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