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1

Gravitational Field

A region where a small test mass experiences a force due to another mass.

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2

Electrostatic Field

A space where a small positive test charge experiences a force per unit charge.

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3

Electric Potential

Given by electric potential difference (voltage) and represents the capacity for doing work by a change in position of the positive test charge.

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4

Gravitational Potential

The work done per unit mass required to move a test mass from infinity to a point P in a gravitational field. It is always negative, with the potential at infinity being zero.

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5

Field Lines

Show the path a test particle would take in a force field, revealing its direction and strength.

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6

Equipotential Surfaces

Points with the same gravitational potential, forming surfaces. Field lines are normal to equipotential surfaces, and the density of field lines is proportional to field strength.

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7

Electric Potential Energy

The capacity for doing work by a change in position of a positive test charge, given by Coulomb's constant, fixed charge, test charge, and radius.

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8

Gravitational Potential Energy

The work done required to move an object from infinity to a point P in a gravitational field. It is always negative.

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9

Potential Gradient

The change in gravitational potential per unit distance, related to gravitational field strength. It represents the slope of a graph plotting gravitational potential against distance from the mass.

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10

Potential Difference

The work done by moving a positive test charge between two points in an electric field. It is required for current flow and is provided by cells or batteries.

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11

Escape Speed

The minimum speed needed for an object to reach infinity from a planet's surface. Objects launched at or above escape speed won't return due to gravity.

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12

Orbital Motion

Motion of an object in a circular path around another object, with gravitation providing the centripetal force.

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13

Orbital Speed

The speed of an object in orbit, given by (GM/r)^0.5, where G is the gravitational constant, M is the mass, and r is the radius.

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14

Orbital Energy

The sum of kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy for an orbiting satellite.

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15

Inverse-Square Law

The behavior where the strength of a field decreases with the square of the distance from the source.

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16

Inverse-Square Law Graphical Representation

Graphical representation of the inverse-square law behavior for gravitational and electric fields.

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17

Gravitational Field

Graphical representation of the gravitational field in accordance with the inverse-square law.

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18

Electric Field

Graphical representation of the electric field in accordance with the inverse-square law.

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