Ultimate APUSH Review

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Columbus arrival

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1

Columbus arrival

1492 begin of the colombian exchange

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2

Jamestown settlement

the first permanent English settlement in North America 1607 an economic venture by the Virginia Company

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3

martial law

rule by the army instead of the elected government. was used in the early days of jamestown

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4

1609 to 1610

Tobacco becomes the most popular crop for the jamestown settlement they get help from the Powhatan natives so they don't face extinction

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5

indentured servants

Colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years

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6

house of burgesses

1619 The Virginia House of Burgesses formed, the first legislative body in colonial America. Later other colonies would adopt houses of burgesses.

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7

The mayflower

the ship in which the Pilgrim Fathers sailed from England to Massachusetts in 1620

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8

Plymouth

Colony settled by the Pilgrims. It eventually merged with Massachusetts Bay colony.

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9

Massechussets Bay colony

1629 Joint stock company charted by puritans led by John Winthrop, "city upon a Hill". Included a govenor and representative assembly

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10

puritan and calvinist ideas

religious intolerance example

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11

Rodger williams was banished

created Rhode Island. religious freedom

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12

great puritan migration

Many Puritans migrated from England to North America during the 1620s to the 1640s due to belief that the Church of England was beyond reform. Ended in 1642 when King Charles I effectively shut off emigration to the colonies with the start of the English Civil War.

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13

maryland

lord Baltimore became a haven for christians and catholics

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14

1969 religious acts of toleration

an act to protect christians and their ability to practice religion

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15

pennsylvania

William Penn and the Quakers

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16

carolina split

The Carolinas split into north and south

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17

proprietary colonies

colonies that were under control of the king

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18

salutary neglect

an English policy of relaxing the enforcement of regulations in its colonies in return for the colonies' continued economic loyalty

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19

bacons rebellion

1676.Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at Virginia Governor Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after the Doegs attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an army with Bacon as its leader which defeated the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city. The rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died of an illness.

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20

governor Berkely

Ran a corrupt regime in alliance with the Virginia elite of tobacco planters. Rewarded them with land grants and lucrative offices. Fled after Bacon's Rebellion

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21

Nathaniel Bacon

Planter who led a rebellion in 1676 against the governor of the Virginia Colony

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22

Black codes

Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves passed by southern states following the Civil War

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23

salem witch trials

1629 outbreak of witchcraft accusations in a puritan village marked by an atmosphere of fear hysteria and stress

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24

first great awakening

Religious revival in the colonies in 1730s and 1740s George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards preached a message of atonement for sins by admitting them to God. The movement attempted to combat the growing secularism and rationalism of mid eighteenth century America. Religious splits in the colonies became deeper.

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25

the enlightenment

A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700's and spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the scientific method. Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics, and science, rather than on imagination, emotions, or religion. Many members of the Enlightenment rejected traditional religious beliefs in favor of Deism which holds that the world is run by natural laws without the direct intervention of God.

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26

albany plan

plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes the plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown

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27

7 years war

Fought in both continental Europe and also in overseas colonies between 1756 and 1763. resulted in Prussian seizures of land from Austria, English seizures of colonies in Indian and North America

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28

proclamation of 1763

A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.

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29

sugar act

(1764) British deeply in debt partl to French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors.

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30

stamp act

1765 law that taxed printed goods, including playing cards, documents, newspapers, etc.

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31

no taxation without representation

reflected the colonists' belief that they should not be taxed because they had no direct representatives in Parliament

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32

virtual representation

British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members

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33

declaratory act

Act passed in 1766 after the repeal of the stamp act stated that Parliament had authority over the the colonies and the right to tax and pass legislation "in all cases whatsoever."

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34

townshend act

A tax that the British Parliament passed in 1767 that was placed on leads, glass, paint and tea

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35

boston massacre

The first bloodshed of the American Revolution (1770), as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five Americans

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36

boston tea party

A 1773 protest against British taxes in which Boston colonists disguised as Mohawks dumped valuable tea into Boston Harbor.

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37

intolerable acts (coercive acts)

1774.*Names given by colonists to the Quebec Act (1774) and to a series of acts by the British in response to the Boston Tea Party.*Closed the Port of Boston to all trade until citizens paid for the lost tea.*Increased the power of Massachusetts' Royal governor at the expense of the legislature.*Allowed Royal officials accused of crimes in Massachusetts to be tried elsewhere

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38

First Continental Congress

September 1774, delegates from twelve colonies sent representatives to Philadelphia to discuss a response to the Intolerable Acts

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39

battle of concord (shot heard around the world)

April 19, 1775. The British leave Lexington and head to Concord to take the weapons and gunpowder from the colonists. The British were burning the town when the colonists began firing on soldiers. The British were chased out of town turning the road into a 20 mile battlefield. Colonists win this battle.

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40

2nd continental congress

Congress of American leaders which first met in 1775, declared independence in 1776, and helped lead the United States during the Revolution

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41

olive branch petition

On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.

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42

Common Sense by Thomas Paine

powerful pamphlet telling the colonists to break free. British were trying to destroy colonies' natural rights. Government is there to protect life liberty and property. Power came from people, not kings. Colonies don't benefit from British Empire.

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43

July 4th, 1776 and the Declaration of Independence

Written by the Committee on Independence, he Declaration of Independence contained a list of grievances placing the blame on George III. Additionally, it asserted certain natural rights: "Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" and the "Consent of the governed" to revolt against tyrannical governments. The English Revolution of 1688 and Enlightenment writers inspired some of the ideas in the Declaration of independence.

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44

Franco American Alliance

Agreement by France to fund American military aids and loans to American colonies. France wanted to piss of Britain basically.

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45

Treaty of Paris

(1898) treaty that ended the Spanish American war. Provided that Cuba be free from Spain.

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46

articles of confederation

1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781 to 1788 (weaknesses, no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)

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47

Constitutional Convention

Meeting in 1787 of the elected representatives of the thirteen original states to write the Constitution of the United States.

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48

bill of rights

The first ten amendments to the Constitution

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49

election of washington

March 1789 first session of Congress began, Washington was unanimous first choice for president, took office on April 30 1789

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50

XYZ affairs

3 american delegates sent to France to negotiate, caused by British and French threatening American shipping, French bribe delegates but US leaves

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51

Alien and sedition acts

Series of four laws enacted in 1798 to reduce the political power of recent immigrants

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52

Midnight Appointments

After 1800, the only branch left in the Federalists' hands was the Judiciary. On John Adam's last night as president he made last minute appointments for Federalists to judgeships. He did so in an attempt to maintain Federalist control of judiciary branch.

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53

jefferson elected

1800, 1804

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54

Louisiana Purchase (1803)

U.S. purchased the Louisiana Territory from France for $15 million, doubling the size of the U.S. and giving the U.S. full control of the Mississippi River

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55

jefferson re elected

1804, Thomas Jefferson against Charles C. Pinckney, Jefferson won 162 to 14

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56

embargo act

1807 act which ended all of America's importation and exportation. Jefferson hoped the act would pressure the French and British to recognize U.S. neutrality rights in exchange for U.S. goods. Really, however, just hurt Americans and our economy and got repealed in 1809.

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57

james madison

"Father of the Constitution," Federalist leader, and fourth President of the United States.

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58

war of 1812

A war (1812 to 1814) between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with American trade with France.

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59

treaty of ghent

December 24, 1814. Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.

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60

hartford convention

Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largley viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much influence

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61

james monroe

(1817 to 1821) and (1821 to 1825) The Missouri Compromise in 1821., the fifth President of the United States (1817 to 1825).His administration was marked by the acquisition of Florida (1819), the Missouri Compromise (1820), in which Missouri was declared a slave state, and the profession of the Monroe Doctrine (1823), declaring U.S. opposition to European interference in the Americas

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62

era of good feelings

A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.

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63

McCulloch v. Maryland

Supreme Court ruling (1819) confirming the supremacy of national over state government

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64

missouri compromise

"Compromise of 1820" over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states.

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65

indian removal act

(1830) a congressional act that authorized the removal of Native Americans who lived east of the Mississippi River

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66

trail of tears

The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas, more than 800 miles (1,287 km), to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116 day journey.

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67

Tariff of 1832 and the Order of Nullification

1832 *The tariff favored Northern interests at the expense of Southern ones. *Calhoun led a state convention calling for the Order of Nullification, which declared that the tariff laws were void and that South Carolina would resist by force any attempt to collect the tariffs. *Jackson, though a supporter of states' rights, defended the Union above all, and asked Congress to issue a new bill to give him authority to collect tariffs by force. *Jackson encouraged his allies to prepare a compromise bill so that the federal government would not lose its image of control and so that South Carolina could come back down from nullification. *Henry Clay presented his Compromise Tariff of 1833 and South Carolina withdrew the Order, but tensions between the federal government and state governments grew

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68

nat turners rebellion

Rebellion in which Nat Turner led a group of slaves through virginia in an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow and kill planter families

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69

black codes

Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slave, passed by southern states following the Civil War

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70

whig party

An American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats, stood for protective tariffs, national banking, and federal aid for internal improvements

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71

president without a party

John Tyler

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72

2nd great awakening

Series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on methodism and baptism, stressed philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for protestants. Attracted women, African Americans,and Native Americans. temperance, slavery/abolition, reforms of society

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73

Important american activist

jane addams (hull house), Jacob riis, etc.

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74

Texas annexed, 1845

Under Polk, the United States annexed Texas, leading to the Mexican American war.

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75

oregon treaty

1846 Settled dispute of Oregon boundary dispute, stemming from the Treaty of 1818 in which both U.S. and British settlers were granted free navigation of the territory.

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76

Mexican American war

(1846 to 1848) The war between the United States and Mexico in which the United States acquired one half of the Mexican territory.

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77

Treaty of guadalupe hidalgo

(1848) treaty signed by the U.S. and Mexico that officially ended the Mexican

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78

Zachery taylor

12th President 1849 to 1850. Whig

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79

compromise of 1850

(1) California admitted as free state, (2) territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico, (3) resolution of Texas New Mexico boundaries, (4) federal assumption of Texas debt, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6) new fugitive slave law advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas

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80

uncle toms cabin

written by harriet beecher stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.

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81

kansas nabraska act

created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opened new lands, repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and allowed settlers in those territories to determine if they would allow slavery within their boundaries. The act was designed by Democratic Sen. Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois.

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82

bleeding kansas

(1856) a series of violent fights between pro slavery and anti slavery forces in Kansas who had moved to Kansas to try to influence the decision of whether or not Kansas would a slave state or a free state.

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83

dred scott decision

Supreme Court ruling that declared slaves were not viewed as citizens but as property

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84

Lincoln douglas debates

1858 Senate Debate, Lincoln forced Douglas to debate issue of slavery, Douglas supported pop. sovereignty, Lincoln asserted that slavery should not spread to territories, Lincoln emerged as strong Republican candidate

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85

freeport doctorine

1858 debate between lincoln and Stephen Douglas discussing if the land we gained from mexico should be a free or slave state pointed out how people could use popular sovereignty to determine if their state or territory should permit slavery

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86

John brown raid

In 1859, the militant abolitionist John Brown seized the U.S. arsenal at Harper's Ferry. He planned to end slavery by massacring slave owners and freeing their slaves. He was captured and executed.

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87

reconstruction begins

The goals and aims of Reconstruction were always hotly debated and open to interpretation part of the challenge of successful Reconstruction was this lack of consensus. (1865)

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88

wade davis bill

1864 Proposed far more demanding and stringent terms for reconstruction. required 50% of the voters of a state to take the loyalty oath and permitted only non confederates to vote for a new state constitution. Lincoln refused to sign the bill, pocket vetoing it after Congress adjourned.

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89

13th amendment

abolished slavery

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90

lincolns reconstruction plan

Granted amnesty to those who took a loyalty oath, and statehood would be reestablished if 10% of citizens took the oath. Didnt pardon important military generals

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91

14th amendment

1)Citizenship for African Americans, 2) Repeal of 3/5 Compromise, 3) Denial of former confederate officials from holding national or state office, 4) Repudiate (reject) confederate debts

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92

military reconsturction act

Enforces the 13th amendment/loyalty pack> splits south in to 5 districts and move north military to districts to enforce United States government laws (1867)

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93

15th amendement

African American males received the right to vote

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94

compromise of 1877

Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river

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95

McKinley Tariff Act

to protect industrialists from foreign competition this raised tariffs to an all time high peacetime rates

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96

sherman anti trust act

an 1890 law that banned the formation of trusts and monopolies in the United States

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97

Wilson Gorman tariff

1894, This tariff passed by Congress in 1894 restricted US sugar imports. The tariff led to an economic downturn in Cuba, and in turn helped to increase the anger of Cuban natives against colonial Spain. Was 40% rate compared to McKinley Tariff, however again he was defeated on tariff program

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98

Spanish american war

In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence

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99

treaty of paris ends

French and Indian War

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100

panama canal

a ship canal 40 miles long across the Isthmus of Panama built by the United States (1904 to 1914)

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