DNA/Protein Synthesis

studied byStudied by 57 people
5.0(1)
get a hint
hint

proteins

1 / 80

Tags and Description

Biology

10th

81 Terms

1

proteins

DNA controls the manufacture of all cellular ___________

New cards
2

gene

contains the instructions for the production of a particular polypeptide chain

New cards
3

ribosomes

Assembly of proteins takes place on the __________

New cards
4

Protein synthesis

the manufacture of proteins

New cards
5

genes on the DNA to the ribosome by RNA

instructions for protein synthesis are transferred from...

New cards
6

RNA (ribonucleic acid)

single stranded molecule that is formed from nucleotides with the sugar being ribose and the nitrogenous bases being: adenine; guanine; cytosine and uracil

New cards
7

ribose

sugar in RNA

New cards
8

adenine; guanine; cytosine and uracil

nitrogenous bases in rna

New cards
9

adenine

in rna, uracil pairs with

New cards
10

Messenger RNA or m RNA

carries the coded instructions for a protein from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome

New cards
11

Transfer RNA or t RNA

brings the amino acids to the ribosome in the correct order so they can be built into a new protein

New cards
12

Ribosomal RNA or r RNA

makes up the structure of the ribosome along with several proteins.

New cards
13

DNA, RNA

___ transfers its message to ___

New cards
14

in the nucleus, leave the nucleus and go to the ribosome

DNA transfers its message to RNA because DNA stays________but RNA can ___________

New cards
15

transcription

Taking the information from the strand of DNA and giving it to a strand of RNA more specifically

New cards
16

the making of mRNA

what is transcription also known as

New cards
17

RNA polymerase

DNA is transcribed by an enzyme called

New cards
18

begin and end

specific nucleotide sequences tell RNA polymerase where to

New cards
19

promoter region

It attaches to DNA at a specific area called the

New cards
20

single, single

The DNA strand opens and allows RNA polymerase to transcribe only a _____ strand of DNA into a _____strand called messenger RNA (mRNA).

New cards
21

cytosine

guanine pairs with

New cards
22

terminator sequence

RNA polymerase moves along the DNA until it reaches a

New cards
23

mRNA: UAC GGC AAU UGC UUU AUG UCC

DNA: ATG CCG TTA ACG AAA TAC AGG

New cards
24

mRNA: AUA GGU UCU

DNA: TAT CCA AGA

New cards
25

translocation

mRNA goes to the ribosome and the message is translated or decoded by another type of RNA

New cards
26

translation

The decoding of mRNA into a protein

New cards
27

codon

every three based on mRNA

New cards
28

anticodon

every three bases on tRNA

New cards
29

initiator codon

first codon

New cards
30

stop codon is reached

The first codon is an initiator codon and the process stops when the

New cards
31

20

There are __ amino acids and scientist have discovered which ones are carried by certain sequences of tRNA

New cards
32

GCU

SO IF m RNA is CGA THEN t RNA is

New cards
33

griffith

concluded there was some transforming factor

New cards
34

occur

oswald avery Destroyed all but the DNA in the cell and found transformation

New cards
35

did not occur

oswald avery Destroyed including the DNA in the cell and found transformation

New cards
36

hershey and chase

used bateriophages or viruses that infect bacteria to show that DNA was the transforming factor.

New cards
37

protein coat

Virus inject DNA into the cell and leave ________ on outside

New cards
38

radioactive isotopes

hershey and chase found that virus inject DNA into the cell and leave protein coat on outside by using _________ to label the DNA

New cards
39

Rosalind Franklin

Showed with X-ray crystallography that DNA was double stranded

New cards
40

chargaff

Showed that there were equal amounts of nitrogen bases Adenine and Thymine and equal amounts of Guanine and Cytosine

New cards
41

equality in quantity between the bases A and T and between the bases G and C

chargaffs rule

New cards
42

watson and crick

worked out the structure of DNA molecule

New cards
43

double helix

watson and crick made a model in which two stands wrapped around each other in a shape they called a

New cards
44

DNA

All living things contain ____

New cards
45

DNA

the blueprint for chemical changes which take place in cells

New cards
46

DNA and proteins

Chromosomes are made up of

New cards
47

Deoxyribonucleic Acid

DNA stands for :

New cards
48

nucleotides

DNA usually consists of two strands of ___________bonded together, like a ladder

New cards
49

sugar-phosphate chains

the outside “rails”

New cards
50

chemical bond “rungs”

strands are held together by _____________ between the bases

New cards
51

3 billion

In humans there are approximately _________ nucleotides in each strand

New cards
52

nucleotides

subunits of DNA

New cards
53
  1. Phosphate (PO4)

  2. A ring shaped sugar(deoxyribose)

  3. Nitrogen base

Nucleotide made of:

New cards
54

ring-shaped sugar

the same in all nucleotides of DNA

New cards
55

deoxyribose

sugar in DNA nucleotides

New cards
56

carbon and hydrogen

deoxyribose composed of

New cards
57

ribose

sugar in Rna

New cards
58

phosphate group

the same in each nucleotide

New cards
59

phosphate and oxygen

phosphate group contains the elements...

New cards
60

nitrogen

They are “nitrogenous” because they contain

New cards
61

Adenine (A) Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) Guanine (G)

4 bases that a DNA nucleotide can have are

New cards
62

adenine and Guanine

purines

New cards
63

Thymine (T) Cytosine (C)

pyrimidines

New cards
64

2

purines have _ rings

New cards
65

1

pyrimidines have _ rings

New cards
66

a nucleic acid molecule called DNA

When many of these nucleotides monomers are joined together, it creates ________

New cards
67

Sequence and length of the nucleotide chains

what determines the proteins the DNA codes

New cards
68

DNA AND RNA

Two types of nucleic acids are found in living organisms

New cards
69

sugar-phosphate (backbone)

forms the structural framework of nucleic acids, including DNA and RNA. This backbone is composed of alternating sugar and phosphate groups, and defines directionality of the molecule.

New cards
70

hydrogen

hold two strands together

New cards
71

replicate

make “exact” copies

New cards
72

DNA replication

copying one double stranded DNA molecule into two genetically identical copies

New cards
73

a cell can divide

All DNA must be replicated before

New cards
74

strands seperate

1st step in dna replication

New cards
75

Each strand builds up its partner by adding the appropriate nucleotides

2nd step in dna replication

New cards
76

nuceloplasm

nucleotides are present in the

New cards
77

cytoplasm

nucleoplasm is the nuclear equivalent of

New cards
78

You end up with two molecules of DNA each with one original parent strand and one new complementary strand

3rd step of dna replication

New cards
79

helicase

enzyme that unwinds DNA

New cards
80

DNA polymerase

enzyme that moves along each strand and brings in bases for new strand copy

New cards
81

complementary

matching

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 58 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 59 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
note Note
studied byStudied by 58 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 68 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard44 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard27 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard235 terms
studied byStudied by 103 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard316 terms
studied byStudied by 29 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard25 terms
studied byStudied by 28 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)