Quiz 1 Review - OTH 2410

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Pathology

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Tags and Description

Health

64 Terms

1

Pathology

scientific study of diseases

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2

Homeostasis

internal stability (BP, electrolytes)

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3

Symptoms

subjective complaints by the patient

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4

Signs

abnormal objective findings - evidence of disease

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5

Asymptomatic

w/o symptoms

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6

Syndrome

defined collection of signs & symptoms that characterize a disorder/condition

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7

Pathogenesis

development of a disease occurs in stages (eg. incubation, full blown, remission)

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8

Acute

abrupt onset - may resolve or result in death

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9

Chronic

develops slowly or lasts longer than 6 months

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10

Predisposing Factors

age, sex, lifestyle, environment, heredity

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11

Risk Factors that CAN'T Change

age, gender, heredity, race

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12

Risk Factors that CAN Change

lifestyle, environment

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13

Preventive Healthcare

improved safety measures involving operation of machinery & automobiles, protective labeling & packaging of food, drugs & toxic products, general public safety education, vaccinations

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14

Genes

basic unit of heredity - small stretches of DNA situated on particular site of chromosome

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15

Genetic Diseases

produced by (1) abnormality in/mutation of genetic code of single gene, (2) several abnormal genes, (3) abnormal presence/absence of entire chromosome/alteration in structure of chromosomes

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16

Infectious Diseases

caused by pathogens

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17

Local Infection

redness, swelling, heat, pain, fever, pus, enlarged lymph glands, & red streaks - isolated to one part of the body

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18

Widespread Infection

fever, headache, body aches, weakness, fatigue, loss of appetite, & delirium - spread throughout body

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19

Escherichia coli (E. coli)

found in colon, manure - causes enteritis (mild to severe)

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20

Staphylococcus aureus

found in skin, hair, anterior naris - causes wound infection, pneumonia, food poisoning, cellulitis

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21

Streptococcus (beta-hemolytic group A)

found in oropharynx, skin, perianal area - causes "strep throat," rheumatic fever, scarlet fever, impetigo

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22

Streptococcus (beta-hemolytic group B)

found in adult genitalia - causes UTI, wound infection, endometritis

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23

Clostridium difficile (C. difficile)

found in contaminated surfaces/spores transferred on unclean hands of others - causes serious intestinal conditions such as colitis

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24

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

found in lungs - causes tuberculosis

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25

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

found in genitourinary tract, rectum, mouth, eye - causes gonorrhea, PID, infectious arthritis, conjunctivitis

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26

Rickettsia rickettsii

found in wood tick - causes Ricky Mountain spotted fever

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27

Staphylococcus epidermidis

found in skin - causes wound infection, bacteremia

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28

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

found in skin, water, soil - causes pneumonia, UTI, meningitis

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29

Hepatitis A Virus

found in feces, blood, urine - causes infectious hepatitis

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30

Hepatitis B Virus

found in feces, blood, all body fluids & excretions - causes serum hepatitis

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31

Hepatitis C Virus

found in blood & body fluids - causes liver disease (may become chronic)

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32

Herpes Simplex Virus

found in lesions of mouth, skin, blood, excretions - causes cold sores, aseptic meningitis, STD

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33

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

blood, semen, vaginal secretions (also isolated in saliva, tears, urine, breast milk, but not proven to be sources of transmission) - causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

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34

Hantavirus

found in deer mouse urine, feces, saliva - causes upper respiratory infection (URI), lower respiratory infection (LRI), Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)

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35

Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (HF)

found in contaminated blood/body fluid, fruit bat - causes hemorrhagic fever, vascular permeability, shock, death - potential bioterrorism threat

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36

West Nile Virus

mosquito-borne - causes fever, rash, hepatitis, encephalitis

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37

Aspergillus Organisms

found in soil, dust - causes aspergillosis, allergic bronchopulmonary

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38

Candida albicans

found in mouth, skin, colon, genital tract - causes thrush, dermatitis

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39

Plasmodium falciparum

found in mosquitos - causes malaria

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40

Neoplasm

new growth of cells that proliferate w/o purpose

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41

Benign

develop slowly, usually remain encapsulated & don't infiltrate surrounding tissue - rarely reoccur after surgical removal

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42

Malignant

invasive cells that multiply excessively & tend to infiltrate other tissues

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43

Carcinoma

cancer of epithelial cells

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44

Sarcoma

cancer of supportive tissues - bone, muscle

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45

Lymphoma

cancer of lymph nodes & tissue of immune system

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46

Leukemia

cancer of blood cell

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47

Melanoma

cancer of melanin producing cells

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48

Metastasis

spreading of malignant disease/pathogenic microorganisms from 1 organ/body part to another not directly connected to it

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49

Carcinogen

external exposure that causes cancer - chemicals, radiation, viruses

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50

Biopsy

excision of tissue from living body, followed by microscopic examination for purpose of exact diagnosis

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51

Hospice

unique concept of care developed to help patients & their families deal w/ life threatening illness

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52

Physical Trauma

head & body trauma from falls, motor vehicle accidents (MVA's), physical abuse, penetrating injuries, near drowning, burns

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53

Chemical Agents

pollutants, poisons, drugs, preservatives, etc.

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54

Other Trauma

extreme heat/cold, radiation, electric shock, insect/snake bites

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55

Antigen

substance causing allergic response

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56

Anaphylaxis

severe systemic allergic response characterized by redness, itching, swelling, & water buildup (angioedema)

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57

Autoimmune Diseases

inappropriate/excessive response of body's defense mechanism that allows immune system to become self-destructive (eg. rheumatoid arthritis)

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58

Immunodeficiency Disorders

depressed/absent immune responses - may be secondary to disease/infection/damage to immune system from drugs, radiation, surgery (eg. AIDS)

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59

Diagnosis

medical history (predisposing factors, drug allergies, current therapies), physical exam, diagnostic studies & lab tests

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60

Social Determinants of Health

Education (experiential learning, collaborative learning, integrated curriculum, continuing professional development), Organization (supportive organizational environment, vision for & commitment to SDH education), Community (community engagement, community priorities, reciprocal commitment)

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61

Prognosis

likely course of disease

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62

Inflammation

a response of body tissues to injury or irritation; characterized by pain and swelling and redness and heat

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63

Nontraditional (Holistic) Medicine

chiropractic, massage, aromatherapy, acupuncture, herbs, magnetic therapy, hypnosis, music therapy

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64

Genetic Diseases

Down Syndrome, Cerebral Palsy (spastic, athetoid, ataxic, mixed), Muscular Dystrophy, Spina Bifida (spina bifida occulta, meningocele, myelomeningocele), Hydrocephalus

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