ANTH 102: Exam 3, Pt. 2

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Flexor pollicis longus

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51 Terms

1

Flexor pollicis longus

Muscle found in modern humans that makes the thumb our strongest finger

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2

Abducted hallux

Big toe aligned with other toes for better balance and stride

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3

Achilles tendon

Returns energy to ball of foot

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4

Savannah Ape (Darwin)

Forest disappeared -> Live on ground -> Tools for hunting & fighting

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5

Grassland Apes (Raymond Dart)

Grassy, distance hunters -> Tools replaced canines -> Became more peaceful

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6

Threat & Display (Helen Fisher)

Bipedalism evolved due to sexual signaling

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7

Hands to Carry

Benefit from bipedalism when asked to carry food, tools, young, etc.

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8

Collecting Fruit Model (Kevin Hunt)

Seeds, fruit & pods high up -> facilitate standing

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9

Energy Efficiency Model

Bbipedalism was more energy efficient than quadrupedalism for breathing while long-distance running

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10

Thermoregulation Model (Peter Wheeler)

Humans shed heat better when further from ground

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11

Provisioning Model (Lovejoy)

Natural selection selected for males to provision females so they could have more offspring

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12

Relative dating

Geographic features (rock) found w/ fossil that creates bracket dates

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13

Absolute dating

Dating the actual fossil which creates more precise dates (can't be done w/ most fossils)

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14

Radiocarbon (C-14) dating

Determine the date/age of younger, organic artifacts using bone and charcoal

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15

Potassium argon dating (K-Ar dating)

Dates layers around older fossils using argon crystals and potassium

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16

Uranium dating

Dates layers around older fossils using uranium

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17

Zircon dating

Used to determine the age of the Earth

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18

Paleomagnetism

A dating technique relying on knowing the patterns of the Earth's polar field reversals

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19

Biostratigraphy

Using animals as markers of certain time periods to date fossils

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20

Earliest Primate Ancestor

Tree Shrew

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21

Angiosperm Hypothesis

Primates originated with the arboreal predation of insects after expansion of the angiosperms (flowering plants)

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22

Adapids

Lemurs

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23

Ida

Ancestral lemurs

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24

Omomyids

Galagos

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25

Apidium & Branisella

NW Monkeys

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26

Aegyptopithecus

OW Monkeys and Apes

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27

Sivapithecus

Orangutans

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28

Proconsul

Apes

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29

Drypithecus

Oak ape

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30

Ramapithecus

Ape-like jaw

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31

Gigantopithecus

Big ape with huge teeth

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32

Bipedalism Adaptations

Foramen magnum S-shaped spinal curve Barrel ribs Bowl shaped pelvis Valgus knee Foot arch Big toe is forward

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33

Which genus was a long distance walker?

Australopithecus afarensis

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34

Cranial changes for bipedalism

Foramen magnum Wider occipital condyles Larger mastoid process

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35

Spinal changes for bipedalism

Lumber holds up waist More lumbar vertebrae 3 spinal curves (cervical, thoracic, lumbar)

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36

Hand changes for bipedalism

Smaller hands Less curved fingers

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37

Pelvis changes for bipedalism

Bowl shaped Wide & flaring ilium Reorientated gluteus maximus & medius

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38

Femur changes for bipedalism

Denser femoral neck Lower greater trochanter Angled femur Flattened distal condyles

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39

Feet changes for bipedalism

Hallux moved in line with other toes Arched

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40

Running adaptations

Gluteus medius & minus Achilles tendon Smaller foot size Striding gait

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41

Human's Slow Life History

Larger brain Long juvenile period Increased longevity Paternal investment Reduced dimorphism

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42

Homo heidelbergensis places

Stenheim, Germany Arago, France Petralona, Greece China, Dali

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43

La-Chapelle Aux Saints

First full neanderthal skeleton discovered Led to stigma about people in mental hospitals

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44

Mid-Pleistocene technology changes

Larger brains = better tools Larger populations = rapid technology growth

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45

Homo helmei

Archaic Homo sapiens

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46

Homo heidelbergensis

Middle Pleistocene hominins from Africa and western Eurasia

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47

Bodo, Ethiopia

Fossil showed transition from Homo erectus to Homo heidelbergensus with cutmarks on lips (defleshing)

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48

Kabwe, Zambia (Rhodesian Man)

Poor oral health from eating sweets for large portion of diet

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49

Sima del Los Huesos

First example of body disposal

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50

Narmada, India

Big brain (1288 cc) H. heidelbergensis with a rounded skull but no forehead

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51

Dorothy Garrod

Preserved a Neanderthal site in Devils Tower Cave, Gibraltar

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