AP Language/Argumentation

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accismus

the figure of coyness ("Oh, you shouldn't have.")

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anaphora

repetition of a word or phrase as the beginning of successive clauses

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anthropomorphism

-logical fallacy, the representation of objects (especially a god) as having human form or traits

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aporia

expression of doubt (often feigned) by which a speaker appears uncertain as to what he should think, say, or do.

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begging the question

Often called circular reasoning, __ occurs when the believability of the evidence depends on the believability of the claim.

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circumlocution

talk around an issue to avoid getting to the point

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concessio

concession, the jujitsu figure. you seem to agree with your opppnent but only use it to your advantage

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deliberative rhetoric

One of three types of rhetoric (the other two are legal and demonstrative). Deliberative rhetoric deals with argument about choices. It concerns itself with matters that affect thefuture. Without deliberative rhetoric, we wouldn't have democracy.

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demonstrative rhetoric

Also called epideictic, the speech of sermons, funeral orations and national anthems. It uses the present tense and its chief topic is values. Aristotle named it one of the three kinds of rhetoric, the other two being forensic (legal) and deliberative (political).

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dialysis

The this-not-that Figure. "Dont buy the shoes. Buy the colors." People take wisdom more seriously if you put it cryptically; it's the idiot savant approach.

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disinterest

lack of bias or involvement; impartiality; (ed) uninvolved; free from self-interest

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dubitatio

feigned doubt about your ability to speak well

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ethos

an appeal based on the character/reputation/ credibility of the speaker.

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forensic (legal) rhetoric

Argument that determines guilt or innocence. It focuses on the past.

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hypophora

a figure that asks a rhetorical question and then immediatly answering it.

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idiom

inseparable words with a single meaning. often mistaken for figures in general, the idiom is merely a kind of figure.

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kairo

the rhetorical art of seizing the occasion. it covers both timing and the appropriate medium

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logos

argument by logic, one of three "appeals"

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post hoc ergo propter hoc

the Chanticleer fallacy. A follow B; therefore. A caused B ("My crowning makes the sun come up.")

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prolepsis (procatalepsis)

anticipating and answering objections in advance

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red herring

the fallacy of distraction

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reductio ad absudrum

taking an opponents argument to its illogical conclusion. A fallacy in formal logic

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slippery slope

the fallacy of dire consequences. it assumes that one choice will neccessarily lead to a cascading series of bad choices

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straw man fallacy

instead of dealing with the actual issue, it attacks a weaker version of argument

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syncrisis

a figure that reframes an argument by redefining it. "Not manipulation. Instruction."

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Ad hominem

Consists of replying to an argument or factual claim by attacking or appealing to a characterist or belif of the person making the argument or claim, rather than by addressing the substance of the argument or producing evidence against the claim

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anadiplosis

A rhetorical figure of speech in which a word or phrase from the end of a sentence or clause is repeated at the begginging of the next sentence or clause. More generally it refers to rhetorical repetition for emphisis

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Personification

assigning human qualities to inanimate objects or concepts. Wordsworth's "the sea that bares her bosom to the moon."

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Antithesis

the presentation of two contrasting ideas. The ideas are balanced by phrase, clause, or paragraphs. "To be or not to be . . ." "It was the best of times; it was the worst of times . . ." "Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country . . ."

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Oxymoron

a figure of speech wherein the author groups apparently contradictory terms. "jumbo shrimp" and "cruel kindness."

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Sarcasm

bitter, caustic language that is meant to hurt or ridicule someone or something. It may use verbal irony as a device.

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Synecdoche

Part as representative of the whole. "All hands on deck"

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Hyperbole

deliberate exaggeration or overstatement

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Metonymy

A type of metaphor in which the name of one object is substituted for that of another closely associated with it. "The White House declared," from the Greek meaning "changed label" or "substitute name"

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Paradox

A statement that appears to be self-contradictory or opposed to common sense but upon closer inspection contains some degree of truth or validity. "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times."

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Onomatopoeia

a figure of speech in which natural sounds are imitated in the sounds of words. Simple examples include such words as buzz, hiss, hum.

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Metaphor

a comparison of two unlike things, not using like or as. "Your eyes are stars"

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Symbol

Anything that represents, stands for, something else. Usually concrete—such as an object, action, character, or scene—that represents something more abstract.

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Invective

an emotionally violent, verbal denunciation or attack using strong, abusive language.

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Euphemism

a more acceptable and usually more pleasant way of saying something that might be inappropriate or uncomfortable. "He went to his final reward" for "he died."

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Satire

A work that targets human vices and follies or social institutions and convention for reform or ridicule.

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Alliteration

The repetition of sounds at the beginning of words, such as "Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers."

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Pathos

an appeal based on emotion.

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Syllogism

a deductive system of formal logic that presents two premises that inevitably lead to a sound conclusion. A=B, B=C, so A=C. "All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore, Socrates is mortal."

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Anecdote

A story or brief episode told by the writer or a character to illustrate a point.

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Denotation

the literal or dictionary meaning of a word

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Connotation

the feelings or emotions surrounding/associated with a word, beyond its literal meaning. Generally positive or negative in nature.

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Repetition

The duplication, either exact or approximate, or any element of language, such as sound, word, phrase, clause, sentence, or grammatical pattern.

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Voice

Two definitions/uses. One refers to the total "sound" of the writer's style.The second refers to the relationship between a sentence's subject and verb (active and passive).

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Parallelism

similarity in structure and syntax in a series of related words, phrases, clauses, sentences, or paragraphs that develops balance. Ex. "When you are right, you cannot be too radical; when you are wrong, you cannot be too conservative"- MLK

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Analogy

Drawing a comparison to show a similarity in some respect. It is assumed that what applies to a parallel situation also applies to the original circumstance.

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Rhetoric

the techniques and rules for using language effectively, eloquently, and persuasively.

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Antecedent

the word, phrase, or clause that a pronoun refers to.

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Thesis

The sentence or group of sentences that directly expresses the author's opinion, purpose, meaning, or proposition.

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Asyndeton

Commas used (with no conjunction) to separate a series of words, speeds up flow of sentence. X, Y, Z as opposed to X, Y, and Z.

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Point of View

Who tells a story and how it is told. (1st, 2nd, 3rd limited, 3rd omniscient)

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Deductive reasoning

reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect). "People suck, so you probably suck too."

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Diction

the author's choice of words that creates tone, attitude, and style, as well as meaning

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Apostrophe

when a speaker address someone/something that isn't there. Ex. "Are you there God? It's me, Mr. Ginley."

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Extended Metaphor

A metaphor that continues beyond it's initial use, often developed at great length, occurring frequently throughout a work.

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Cliche

an overused saying or idea

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Polysyndeton

Deliberate use of many conjunctions in close succession, especially where some might be omitted. Hemingway and the Bible both use extensively. Ex. "he ran and jumped and laughed for joy"

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Inductive reasoning

reasoning from detailed facts to general principles. Ex. "All of the ice we have examined so far is cold.Therefore, all ice is cold."

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Imagery

words that create mental pictures

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Simile

a comparison using like or as

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Motif

pattern; repeated image, symbol, idea

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Pun

a play on words that are identical or similar in sounds but differ in meaning

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Ambiguity

deliberately unclear, having multiple meanings

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Chiasmus

a statement consisting of two parallel parts in which the second part is reversed ("Susan walked, and in rushed Mary.")

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Rhetorical Question

a question that does not expect an explicit answer

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Juxtaposition

words, phrases, ideas placed side by side for effect

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Non Sequitur

an inference that does not follow logically from the premise (literally, does not follow)

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Logical Fallacy

a mistake in reasoning

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Abstract

refers to language that describes concepts rather than concrete images ( ideas and qualities rather than observable or specific things, people, or places). The observable or "physical" is usually described in concrete language.

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Allegory

an extended narrative in prose or verse in which characters, events, and settings represent abstract qualities and in which the writer intends a second meaning to be read beneath the surface of the story; the underlying meaning may be moral, religious, political, social, or satiric. Examples: John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress (Temptations of Christians) , Orwell's Animal Farm (Russian Revolution), and Arthur Miller's Crucible ("Red Scare")

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Allusion

a reference to a well-known person, place, or thing from literature, history, etc. Example: Eden, Scrooge, Prodigal Son, Catch-22, Judas, Don Quixote, Mother Theresa

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Aphorism

a short, often witty statement of a principle or a truth about life. Examples: "Early bird gets the worm." "What goes around, comes around.." "People who live in glass houses shouldn't throw stones."

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Assonance

repetition of vowel sounds between different consonants, such as in neigh/fade,

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Cacophony

harsh, awkward, or dissonant sounds used deliberately in poetry or prose; the opposite of euphony.

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Consonance

repetition of identical consonant sounds within two or more words in close proximity, as in boost/best; it can also be seen within several compound words, such as fulfill and ping-pong

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Epistrophe

repetition of a word or expression at the end of successive phrases, clauses, sentences, or verses especially for rhetorical or poetic effect (as Lincoln's "of the people, by the people, for the people") Compare to anaphora. Ex: "When I was a child, I spoke like a child, I thought like a child, I reasoned like a child." (Corinthians) Ex: I'll have my bond!/ Speak not against my bond!/ I have sworn an oath that I will have my bond.---The Merchant of Venice

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Euphony

a succession of harmonious sounds used in poetry or prose; the opposite of cacophony

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False Analogy

When two cases are not sufficiently parallel to lead readers to accept a claim of connection between them.

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Oversimplification

When a writer obscures or denies the complexity of the issues in an argument

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