Exam 1 for NUR 407 - Adult Health & Illness III ORU

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what is a major risk factor for hearing loss?

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what is a major risk factor for hearing loss?

occupation

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____ loss affects nearly every aspect of an individual's life

hearing

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presbycusis

progressive, age related hearing loss

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cochlear implant

auditory prosthetic used for people with profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss

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aural rehabilitation

intervention to improve communication skills of the person who has a hearing impairment

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hearing aids

much smaller and more cost effective

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hearing guide dogs

For moderate to severe hearing loss assist owners in hearing things in the environment and cues owner

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true or false? does repeated exposure to loud noises cause the development of conductive hearing loss?

false: noise exposure causes irreparable sensorineural hearing loss.

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conductive hearing loss

hearing impairment caused by interference with sound or vibratory energy in the external canal, middle ear, or ossicles

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in order to enhance communication with a pt who has moderate hearing loss the nurse should? a. speak as loudly as possible b. discuss only simply, unambiguous topics c. ensure the pt can see the nurse's mouth d. use writing as the sole means of communication

c. make sure the pt can see the nurses mouth

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cerumen impaction:

buildup of ear wax blocking ear canal --> can be removed

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how can cerumen be removed

irrigation, suction, or instrumentation

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how are foreign bodies removed in the ear?

same way as cerumen

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tympanic perforation

tear of hole in the eardrum

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what causes tympanic perforation

infection or trauma

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what sound does a tympanic perforation make

whistling sounds when you sneeze and blow your nose.

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symptoms from tympanic perforation

pain, < hearing, purulent drainage

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tympanoplasty

surgical repair of the eardrum

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otosclerosis

hearing loss that results from the formation of new, abnormal spongy bone that impairs the functioning of the stapes

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options to help otosclerosis

only surgical: stapedectomy or stapedotomy

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vertigo

the sensation of dizziness

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nystagmus

Involuntary rapid eye movements

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is vertigo an issue with the middle or inner ear?

inner ear

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is nystagmus a middle or inner ear issue?

inner ear

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menière disease

chronic disease of the inner ear characterized by dizziness, ringing in the ear, and hearing loss

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what causes meniere disease

changes in pressure within the inner ear or mixing of inner ear fluids

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how can we treat pts with meniere disease

diet and medication

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what meds would we prescribe someone with meniere disease?

antihistamines, tranquilizers, antiemetics, or surgery

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true or false: a pt with meniere disease should be counseled to avoid high-salt foods and caffeine

TRUE: low sodium diet, NO alcohol or caffeine

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is vertigo an issue with the middle or inner ear?

inner ear

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tinnitus

ringing in the ears

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what is tinnitus caused by

underlying disorder of the ear associated with hearing loss

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benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV)

brief period of incapacitating vertigo that occurs when the position of the patient's head is changed

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ototoxicity

result of medications that have adverse effects of the cochlea, vestibular apparatus, or cranial nerve VIII

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acoustic neuroma

slow growing benign tumor of cranial nerve VIII

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a nurse should be aware of potential ototoxicity when administering which of the following medications a. amino glycoside antibiotics b. alpha-adrenergic blockers c. anti fungal meds d. opioid analgesics

amino glycoside antibiotics gentamicin are some of the most ototoxic drugs

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myopia

nearsightedness - distant vision is blurred

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hyperopia

farsightedness - near vision is blurred

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astigmatism

irregularity of the curve of the cornea

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blindness

20/400 to no light perception

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true or false: typically an individual who becomes suddenly blind adapts to his or her new circumstances more easily than someone who loses vision gradually

false: pts with progressive eye disorders develop coping and management techniques over time

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glaucoma

group of ocular conditions characterized by optic nerve damage related to intraocular pressure (IOP)

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open-angle glaucoma

the most common form of glaucoma, where the trabecular meshwork gradually becomes blocked, causing a buildup of pressure

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angle-closure glaucoma

Rapid onset of elevated IOP

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cataracts

clouding of the lens

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nurse is teaching a group of older adults about cataracts what teaching point should the nurse include in this health education?

eye surgery is the most effective treatment for cataracts

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retinal detachment

separation of the retinal pigment epithelium from the sensory layer

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macular degeneration

tiny, yellowish spots called druse beneath the retina

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two types of age-related macular degeneration

dry and wet

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orbital trauma is used associated with

head injury

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conjunctivitis

inflammation of the conjunctiva

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major causes of conjunctivitis

infection, allergy, and irritating toxic stimuli

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true or false: preventing the spread of conjunctivitis can often be accomplished by promoting hand washing

true

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enucleation

removal of entire eye and part of the optic nerve

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evisceration

surgical removal of the intraocular contents

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exenteration

The removal of the eyelids, the eye, and various amounts of orbital contents

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common meds with eyes are

topic anesthetics, mydriatics, and cycloplegia agents

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when administering a topical ocular medication to a pt the nurse should

position the pt's head in a supine position

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stress

non-specific response of the body to any demand for change

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acute stress

results from daily life encounters: flight or fight response

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chronic stress

sustained response or repeated event that eventually impedes coping

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coping

process of applying thoughts and actions to deal with stressful events

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problem-focused coping

deals directly with the challenge

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emotion-focused coping

directed at dealing with emotions

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stressor:

stimulus initiating the stress response

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sociocultural stressors

family, financial, career concerns

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altered coping patterns

smoking, drinking, physical illness, addictive behaviors

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separation anxiety

fear/anxiety when separated from someone person is emotionally attached to

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panic disorder

recurrent panic attacks

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phobias

irrational fear of a specific object or situation

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generalized anxiety disorder

uncontrollable excessive worry > 3 months

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OCD

unrealistic obsessions

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trauma and stress related disorders

  • acute stress disorder

  • PTSD

  • adjustment disorder

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Risk Factors for anxiety:

•Women •Trauma •Genetics •Other mental illness •Worse with substance Abuse 30-44 years old

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mild anxiety symptoms

Restlessness, increased motivation, irritability

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moderate anxiety symptoms

agitation, muscle tightness

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severe anxiety symptoms

inability to function, ritualistic behavior, unresponsive

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panic attacks

15-30 minutes palpitations SOB choking chest pain Nausea

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social phobia

fear of embarrassment, dread of social situations, feels judged

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agoraphobia

avoids being outside

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specific phobias

fear of objects or specific situations or events

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hoarding

collecting and putting things away in a guarded manner

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sensory perception

ability to receive sensory input and translate it into meaningful info

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sensation

the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment

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