AP US History Chapter 1

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Land Bridge

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1

Land Bridge

The Bering Land Bridge went from Eurasia to North America. This bridge allowed both Americas to be populated. About 10,000 years ago the glaciers, that first exposed the land bridge, melted rising the sea levels, hiding the bridge.

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2

Maize

Maize is a Native American corn. It's production was revolutionized by the Pueblos in Mexico.

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3

Pueblo

They were located in the Rio Grande Valley. They created advanced irrigation systems to water their crops and made multiple story, terraced homes.

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4

Three-Sister Farming

The 3 agricultural products were maize, beans, and squash. The beans grew on the trellis of the corn and the squash grew on the ground to maintain moisture.

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5

Iroquois Confederacy

They were situated in the northeaster woodlands. Hiawatha was the leader who formed the Iroquois Confederacy.

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6

Matrilinear

Where power and possession are passed down the female side. This practice was followed by the Iroquois and many different North American tribes.

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7

Land Usage

Native Americans lived in harmony with the land while the Europeans wanted to change the land to fit them.

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8

Norse

The Norse come from Scandinavia and tried to settle in what is now Newfoundland. They were not successful because their country was poor and had no desire to expand.

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9

Crusades

Were an effort by Europeans to liberate the Holy Land from Muslim control. This led the Europeans to want riches from other lands and cheaper means of getting them which meant more explorations.

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10

Marco Polo

Allegedly travelled to China in 1295. His traveling drove a need for easier travel to the East.

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11

Caravel

Portuguese mariners developed the caravel in about 1450. The caravel is a boat that an sail closer to the wind. This allowed faster travel past the African coast back to Europe.

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12

Renaissance

The printing press, mariner's compass, and a spirit of adventure and optimish all were factors from the Renaissance that impacted exploration.

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13

Christopher Columbus

He was from Italy but sailed for the Spanish Monarchs. He first landed in the Bahamas and on his second venture to the New World landed in what is now Haiti. With him arrived cattle, pigs, horses, sugarcane, but also yellow fever, small pox, and malaria.

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14

Columbian Exchange

From Columbus' discovery of the New World came an exchange between the old and new worlds. From the old world came crops like wheat, sugar, rice, and coffee and animals like horses, cows, and pigs and diseases like small pox. In return they got gold, silver, corn, potatoes, and sphyllis. Also form Africa came slave labor that boosted cash crop production in the new world.

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15

Treaty of Tordesillas

Was signed in 1494 and was between Spain and Portugal. The treaty split the new world giving the lion's share to Spain and Africa, Asia, and what is now Brazil went to Portugal.

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16

Balboa

1513, Discovered Pacific Ocean and claimed Panama.

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17

Magellan

1519, Completed first circumnavigation of the world.

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18

Ponce de Leon

1513, 1521, Explored Florida.

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19

Coranado

1540-1542, Discovered Grand Canyon and Colorado River.

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20

DeSoto

1539-1542, Discovered Mississippi River.

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21

Pizarro

1532, Defeated Incas and made Spain rich.

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22

Cortes

1519, Sailed to Mexico.

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23

Encomienda

Allowed the government to give Native Americans to colonists in return they had to try to convert them to Christianity. This was to test the methods that they would use in Mexico and Peru.

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24

John Cabot

Is originally from Italy and sailed for England in 1497-1498. He explored the northeastern coast of North America.

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25

Jacques Cartier

Sailed for France in 1534. He travelled hundreds of miles along the St. Lawrence River.

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26

Pope's Rebellion

Took place in New Mexico in 1680. Spanish Christian Settlers tried to convert the Pueblo Indians causing them to destroy churches and murder settlers.

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27

Black Legend

The belief that colonists killed Indians for Christ, took their treasures, and spread disease. While these were the negative effects of colonization, many Spanish speaking countries in South America started from Spanish colonization.

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