US History Regents Review

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Nativisim

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178 Terms

1

Nativisim

the belief that those born in a country are superior to immigrants

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2

Capitalism

An economic system based on private property and free enterprise.

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3

Federalists

supporters of the Constitution

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4

Bill of Rights

The first ten amendments to the Constitution

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5

Sojourner Truth

United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women (1797-1883)

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6

Monopoly

the exclusive possession or control of the supply or trade in a commodity or service.

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7

Populist Party

U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies

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8

Jacob Riis

A Danish immigrant, he became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote How The Other Half Lives in 1890.

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9

NAACP

Interracial organization founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination and to achieve political and civil rights for African Americans.

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10

Lochner v. New York

Supreme Court case that decided against setting up an 8 hour work day for bakers

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11

1917 Immigration Act

Required all foreigners to take a literacy test to prove they could read a short passage in English. This effectively prevented people from poorer countries from entering the USA

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12

Hoovervilles

Depression shantytowns, named after the president whom many blamed for their financial distress

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13

Berlin Blockade

The blockade was a Soviet attempt to starve out the allies in Berlin in order to gain supremacy. The blockade was a high point in the Cold War, and it led to the Berlin Airlift.

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14

Guerilla War

warfare without front lines and with irregular forces operating in the midst of, and often hidden or protected by, civilian populations

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15

Women's Rights Convention at Seneca Falls (1848)

Gathering of feminist activists in Seneca Falls, New York, where Elizabeth Cady Stanton read her "Declaration of Sentiments," stating that "all men and women are created equal."

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16

Suffrage

the right to vote

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17

Grassroots

people at the local level; average voters, not professional politicians

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18

19th Amendment (1920)

Women gain the right to vote

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19

13th Amendment (1865)

Abolition of slavery w/o compensation for slave-owners

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20

14th Amendment

Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws

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21

15th Amendment (1870)

U.S. cannot prevent a person from voting because of race, color, or creed

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22

16th Amendment

Allows the federal government to collect income tax

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23

17th Amendment

Direct election of senators

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24

18th Amendment

Prohibition of alcohol

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25

Great Plains

vast grassland between the mississippi river and the rocky mountains

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26

Transcontinental Railroad

Railroad connecting the west and east coasts of the continental US

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27

Homestead Act

1862 - Provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it. Encouraged westward migration.

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28

Morrill Land Grant Act

Set aside land and provided money for agricultural colleges

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29

Pacific Railway Act

1862 legislation to encourage the construction of a transcontinental railroad, connecting the West to industries in the Northeast (Union Pacific and Central Pacific RR)

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30

Westward Expansion

territorial acquisitions as settlers began moving westward beyond the Appalachian Mountains

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31

reservations (Native people)

A designated area of land that Native American Tribes lived on

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32

Dawes Act of 1887

tried to civilize Indians and make them more little settlers by giving them land to farm, instead it harmed their native culture

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33

Carlisle Indian School

in Pennsylvania to educate and civilize Indians, motto = "Kill the Indian and save the man"

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34

forced assimilation

forcing an ethnic group to adopt the culture of a dominant group

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35

Gold Rush

a period from 1848 to 1856 when thousands of people came to California in order to search for gold.

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36

Battle of Wounded Knee

US soldiers massacred 300 unarmed Native American in 1890. This ended the Indian Wars. Defeat of the Sioux

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37

Battle of Little Bighorn

1876 Sioux victory over army troops led by George Custer

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38

Agricultural Revolution

The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering

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39

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million

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40

Gadsden Purchase

purchase of land from mexico in 1853 that established the present U.S.-mexico boundary. Done to achieve Manifest Destiny

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41

Manifest Destiny

A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific.

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42

Chinese Exclusion Act

(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.

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43

Mexican-American War

1846 - 1848 - President Polk declared war on Mexico over the dispute of land in Texas. At the end, American ended up with 55% of Mexico's land.

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44

Teapot Dome Scandal

A government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921

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45

Mercantilism

An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought

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46

Transatlantic Slave Trade

The brutal system of trading African Slaves from Africa to the Americas. It changed the economy, politics, and environment. It affected Africa, Europe, and America. It implies that slaves were used for cash crops and created a whole new economy.

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47

Powhatan Confederacy

Group of Native Americans who traded with John Smith. The confederacy gets its name from its leader, Chief Powhatan.

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48

Columbian Exchange

The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.

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49

Econmienda System

Practiced in the americas and enforced by the Europeans, exploited the native workers/forced labor

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50

Mayflower Compact

1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.

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51

Virginia House of Burgesses

The first elected assembly in the New World, established in 1619

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52

Magna Carta

the royal charter of political rights given to rebellious English barons by King John in 1215

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53

Habeas Corpus

An order to produce an arrested person before a judge.

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54

English Bill of Rights

1689 laws protecting the rights of English subjects and Parliament

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55

Representative Government

system of government in which public policies are made by officials selected by the voters and held accountable in periodic elections

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56

Salutary Neglect

An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies

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57

Treaty of Paris

agreement signed by British and American leaders that stated the United States of America was a free and independent country

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58

Proclamation of 1763

law forbidding English colonists to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains

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59

Navigation Acts

Laws passed by the British to control colonial trade

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60

Sugar Act

law passed by the British Parliament setting taxes on molasses and sugar imported by the colonies

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61

Stamp Act

1765; law that taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers, etc.

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62

Quartering Act

1765 - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.

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63

Intolerable Acts

series of laws passed in 1774 to punish Boston for the Tea Party

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64

Olive Branch Petition

An offer of peace sent by the Second Continental Congress to King George lll

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65

Confederacy

A loose union of independent states

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66

Townshend Acts

A tax that the British Parliament passed in 1767 that was placed on leads, glass, paint and tea

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67

Common Sense

A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation

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68

Join or Die

Famous cartoon drawn by Ben Franklin which encouraged the colonies to join in fighting the British during the French and Indian War

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69

Articles of Confederation

A weak constitution that governed America during the Revolutionary War.

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70

Shay's Rebellion

A 1787 rebellion in which ex-Revolutionary War soldiers attempted to prevent foreclosures of farms as a result of high interest rates and taxes

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71

Virginia Plan

Proposal to create a strong national government

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72

Three-Fifths Compromise

Agreement that each slave counted as three-fifths of a person in determining representation in the House for representation and taxation purposes (negated by the 13th amendment)

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73

Anti-Federalists

people who opposed the Constitution

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74

Supremacy Clause

Constitution is the supreme law of the land

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75

Great Compromise

agreement providing a dual system of congressional representation

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76

Marbury v. Madison

William Marbury, a prominent financier and Federalist, sued James Madison in response to not being served his commission for justice of the peace for Washington, D.C. Judicial Review

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77

Mculloch v. Maryland

1819, state tax on the Second Bank of the US was unconstitutional, and a national bank is implied by the 'necessary and proper' clause of the Constitution. Federal law/state law,

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78

Gibbons v. Ogden

Regulating interstate commerce is a power reserved to the federal government

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79

Bush v. Gore

Use of 14th Amendment's equal protection clause to stop the Florida recount in the election of 2000.

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80

Citizens United v. FEC

Turned BCRA around. Money is an expression, free speech. (2010)

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81

Alien and Sedition Acts

Series of four laws enacted in 1798 to reduce the political power of recent immigrants

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82

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.

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83

Louisiana Purchase

territory in western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million

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84

Embargo Act

(1807) a law that prohibited American merchants from trading with other countries

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85

War of 1812

A war (1812-1814) between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with American trade with France.

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86

Monroe Doctrine

an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers

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87

Erie Canal

A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.

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88

Know-Nothings

the American Party; anti-immigrant and anti-Catholic

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89

Spoils System

A system of public employment based on rewarding party loyalists and friends.

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90

Trail of Tears

The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.

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91

Indian Removal Act

(1830) a congressional act that authorized the removal of Native Americans who lived east of the Mississippi River

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92

John C. Calhoun

South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification

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93

Andrew Jackson

(1829-1833) and (1833-1837), Indian removal act, nullification crisis, Old Hickory," first southern/ western president," President for the common man," pet banks, spoils system, specie circular, trail of tears, Henry Clay Flectural Process.

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94

Nat Turner

Leader of a slave rebellion in 1831 in Virginia. Revolt led to the deaths of 20 whites and 40 blacks and led to the "gag rule' outlawing any discussion of slavery in the House of Representatives

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95

Nat Turner's Rebellion

a slave rebellion led by Nat Turner that took place in Virginia in 1831

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96

William Lloyd Garrison

1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.

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97

"Ain't I a Woman" Speech

(1857) An extemporaneous speech by abolitionist and women's rights advocate Sojourner Truth at the Women's Convention in Akron, Ohio. Truth, a former slave, proclaimed that she could "work as much and eat as much as a man" and "bear the lash as well" while repeatedly returning to the question "and ain't I a woman?" Truth also remarked that, even as a woman, "nobody ever helps me into carriages" because of her race. The speech was later published and popularized by feminist Frances Dana Barker Gage.

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98

Frederick Douglass

Escaped slave and great black abolitionist who fought to end slavery through political action

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99

Harriet Beecher Stowe

Author of Uncle Tom's Cabin

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100

Kansas-Nebraska Act

1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.

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