Endocrine System (copy)

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Endocrine Gland

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49 Terms

1

Endocrine Gland

Structure in the body that specializes in producing a compound released directly into blood stream

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2

Hormone

The substance being released into blood stream

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3

Target Cell / Tissue / Organ

Cells with receptors to specific hormones

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4

Peptide hormones

Bind to specific receptors on the target cell’s plasma membrane

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5

Steroid hormones

Pass through the plasma membrane into the cell and bind to receptors inside the cytoplasm

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6

Steroid/receptor complex

Generally acts on RNA transcription and protein production

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7

2 nd messenger system

cAMP, Ca++, enzymes, nucleotides or lipids

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8

Control

occurs by feedback mechanisms and most commonly negative feedback

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9

Antagonistic Hormones

Cause the opposite action from each other is common

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10

Insulin and Glucagon

control of glucose levels

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11

Pituitary Gland

What is the Thyroid Gland and Thyroxin production controlled by

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12

temperature and tell the pituitary to produce Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, TSH, controlling Thyroxin production

What do sensors in the hypothalamus monitor

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13

Thyroxin production is stepped up in the thyroid gland, which increases metabolism and produces heat

What happens if body temperature drops

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14

Thyroxin production decreases and slows down the metabolism

What happens if body temperature rises

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15

Sensors in Hypothalamus

What monitors water level of blood

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16

Less water

causes the Hypothalamus to tell the pituitary to produce ADH, Anti-Diuretic Hormone

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17

Anti-Diuretic Hormone

causes thirst and conserves water by acting on kidneys

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18

Kidney functions

conserve water by producing a more concentrated urine

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19

More water

causes ADH to be produced less, thus conserving less water by forming a more dilute urine, (containing more water).

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20

Hypothalamus

-Produces hormones that control (and are stored in) the pituitary gland

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21

hypophyseal portal system

Produces ADH and Oxytocin which are stored in the posterior pituitary and hormones from hypothalamus travel

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22

Oxytocin function

stimulates uterine contraction

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23

Pituitary Gland

Produces 8 hormones that control other glands

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24

Posterior pituitary

an extension of the axons from the hypothalamus Produce Releasing and Inhibiting Hormones to control Anterior Pituitary. Store Anti-Diuretic Hormone and Oxytocin

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25

Anterior Pituitary

controlled by the hypothalamus but makes its own hormones. -Many control other glands / tissues / organs

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26

Prolactin

Mammary glands. Stimulates breast development and milk production. Has been found to play roles in many other areas of the body from reproductive, metabolic, behavior and the immune system.

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27

Growth Hormone

Bone, muscle, adipose tissue. Primary effect is to stimulate protein synthesis, speed up the the cell cycle and growth of tissue / body.

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28

Follicle Stimulating Hormone

Testicles and Ovaries. Stimulates growth, development, and puberty

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29

AdrenoCorticoTropic Hormone

Produced in response to stress and stimulates the production of cortisol by the adrenal glands

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30

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

Stimulates the release of thyroxin by the thyroid gland

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31

AntiDiuretic Hormone

Acts on the kidneys’ reabsorption of water

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32

Oxytocin hormone

Mammary Glands and Uterus. Plays a role in sexual development and milk production. sometimes referred to as the “love hormone” for pro-social behavioral action.

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33

Luteinizing Hormone

Testicles and Ovaries.In females an acute LH “surge” causes ovulation. -In males, LH stimulates the production of testosterone

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34

Pineal Gland

Produces Melatonin and Serotonin which are involved in circadian cycle (sleep / wake). Has wide-ranging effects on heart rate / blood pressure, alertness, body temperature, and muscular system

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35

Thyroid Gland

Found in the neck. -Release thyroxin, T4 , which is converted to triiodothyronine, T3 , which increases metabolism

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36

Thyroxin

made from the amino acid tyrosine and iodine. -Effects almost every cell's metabolism

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37

Calcitonin

causes a decrease in blood calcium by increasing bone growth and decreasing absorption by intestines and kidneys

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38

PTH

Hormone which raises calcium levels in blood. Increases conservation of calcium by kidneys, increased absorption by intestines, and increased osteoclast degradation of bone

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39

Parathyroid

4 glands found around thyroid gland, Hormone which raises calcium levels in blood

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40

Thymus

Found above and around the heart. -Produce Thymosin which stimulates T-cell “maturation” in the immune system.

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41

Pancreas

Found in the abdominal cavity. Both an endocrine and exocrine gland. Also produces digestive juices into the small intestine

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42

Alpha cells

produce glucagon

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43

Beta cells

produce insulin

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44

Diabetes mellitus

Body does not produce insulin or enough insulin

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45

Type-1 Diabetes

In children, body produces little or none. Get insulin injections

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46

Type-2 Diabetes

In adults, low to normal levels produced but cells don’t respond to insulin. Monitor diet better

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47

insulin

STORES glucose AS glycogen in liver and muscles

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48

glucagon

RELEASES glucose FROM glycogen in liver and muscle

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49

triiodothyronine, T3

increases metabolism

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