Biology: Cell Test

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hypertonic

lower concentration outside cell, higher concentration in cell (cell shrinks)

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isotonic

equilibrium in and out of cell

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hypotonic

high concentration of solute in cell, low concentration outside of cell (cell swells up)

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enzymes

a biological catalyst that speeds up reactions

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Rudolf Virchow

made the cell theory

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osmosis

diffusion of water, move towards more solute

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eukaryotic

cells found in plants and animals

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prokaryotic

single cells: bacteria and archaea

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ATP

adenosine triphosphate

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what does ATP do?

it's energy for the cell

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Phosphorylation

ATP into ADP (kicks out one of the phosphate groups)

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negatively charged

phosphates groups in ATP

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plasma membrane is made of a

phospholipid bilayer

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transmission electron microscopes

used to look inside of cell

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scanning electron microscopes

high quality images of the surface of cells

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exergonic

kinetic energy

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endergonic

potential energy

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nucleus

holds all DNA, regulates organelles

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nucleolus

spherical shape, produces ribosomes

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cell wall

surrounds and protects plant cells

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mitochondria

converts chemical energy into ATP

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chloroplast

area of photosynthesis

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Endoplasmic Reticulum

quality control of proteins

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golgi apparatus

It is responsible for packaging items for transport within and outside of the cell

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central vacuole

stores nutrients, center of plant cell

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contractile vacuole

stop excess water so cell doesn't burst

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primary cillia

stationary, help cell feel around the area

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tight cell junction

waterproof seal membrane cells

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anchoring cell junction

locks cell together

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gap cell junction

where cells communicate

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peroxisomes

break down items in the memebrane

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vesicles

small membrane sacks that mostly transport food or waste in and out of cells

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lysosomes

break down pathogens and food

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facilitated diffusion

diffusion of larger molecules through carrier proteins

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plasmodesmata

only found in plant cells, communication within cell, connect plasma membrane to cell

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cell theory

all living things are made of cells, cells come from existing cells, and cells are the basic unit of life

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cholesterol

help stabilize membrane in different temperatures

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pinocytosis

involves bringing solute and fluids

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phagocytosis

movement of large molecules (viruses and macromolecules) inside the cells

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