AP Lang Rhetorical Devices

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Active Voice

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48 Terms

1

Active Voice

The subject of the sentence performs the action

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2

Passive Voice

The subject of the sentence receives the action

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3

Allusion

An indirect reference to literary text

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4

Alter-ego

A character used by the author to express hhis own thoughts

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5

Anecdote

A brief recounting of a relevant episode

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6

Antecedent

A word, phrase, or clause referred to by a pronoun

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7

Classicism

Art or literature characterized by a realistic view of people and the world

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8

Diction

Word choice as an element of style

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9

Colloquial

Ordinary or familiar type of conversation.

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10

Colloquialism

Slang

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11

Connotation

Associations suggested by a word

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12

Denotation

Literal, explicit meaning of a word

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13

Jargon

Diction used by a specific group of people

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14

Vernacular

Specific dialect

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15

Didactic

Literary text that expresses a moral

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16

Adage

A folk saying with a lesson

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17

Allegory

Story where characters represent concepts

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18

Aphorism

Summary of author’s main point

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19

Ellipsis

The deliberate omission of a word or phrase done for effect by the author

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20

Euphemism

Less offensive substitute for a word

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21

Analogy

Comparison of one pair of variables to a parallel set of variables

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22

Metonymy

Replacing an actual word or idea, with a related word or concept

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23

Synecdoche

Part representing a whole

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24

Synesthesia

Description involving senses

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25

Invective

A long, emotionally violent attack

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26

Juxtaposition

Placing things side by side for the purposes of comparison

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27

Motif

A recurring idea in a piece of literature

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28

Oxymoron

Contradictory terms placed together, creating a paradox

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29

Paradox

Contradictory situation that is actually true

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30

Parallelism

Sentence structure with repeated identical pattern

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31

Anaphora

Repetition of a word, phrase, or clause at the beginning of two or more sentences

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32

Chiasmus

When the same words are used twice in succession, but the second time, the order of the words is reversed

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33

Antithesis

Two opposite or contrasting words, phrases, or clauses, or even ideas, with parallel structure

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34

Zuegma (Syllepsis)

When a single word governs or modifies two or more other words, and the meaning of the first word must change for each of the other words it governs or modifies

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35

Polysyndeton

list of items which are all separated by conjunctions

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36

Appositive

A word or group of words placed beside a noun or noun substitute to supplement its meaning

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37

Balanced sentence

A sentence in which two parallel elements are equally set off against each other

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38

Cumulative sentence (Loose Sentence)

When the writer begins with an independent clause, then adds subordinate elements

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39

Periodic sentence

List of subordinate elements followed by main idea

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40

Syntax/sentence variety

Grammatical arrangement/grouping of words

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41

Ethos

Credibility

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42

Pathos

Emotion

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43

Logos

Logic

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44

Concession

Acceptance of some of other side’s argument

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45

Conditional Statement

If-then statement

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46

Ad Hominem

Personally attacking your opponents instead of their arguments

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47

Appeal to authority

The claim that because somebody famous supports an idea, the idea must be right

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48

Non Sequitur

A conclusion that does not follow from its premises

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