APUSH Unit 5 Vocab

studied byStudied by 79 people
5.0(1)
get a hint
hint

“54º40' or Fight!”, 1844

1 / 20

21 Terms

1

“54º40' or Fight!”, 1844

Aggressive slogan of Oregonions, asserting where border should be established after period of joint American-British occupation. Polk supported, but settled for 49º latitude as US was fighting Mexican war at the time. Border established at this line from Rocky Mountains to Pacific Ocean.

New cards
2

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848

Treaty which ended Mexico-American War. Rio Grande recognized as border by Mexico, Southwest taken from Mexico into American territory. Gave Mexico $15 million. Territory gain referred to as Mexican Cession.

New cards
3

Free soil

Idea that congress should prohibit slavery in western territories as it threatened republican institutions. Did not oppose southern slavery. Did not want to compete with slave labor in West.

New cards
4

Free labor, 1854-1861

Work conducted free from constraint and from laborers' own volition. Became an ideal championed by Republicans (who were primarily northerners.) Core idea of North's argument that slavery should not expand.

New cards
5

Gold Rush of 1849

Individuals strike gold along Sierra Nevada Mts. in 1849, starting mining boom. Helped shape West, set pattern for subsequent rushes. Sped up California's statehood process, creating sectional crisis of 1850.

New cards
6

Fugitive Slave Act of 1850

Part of Compromise of 1850, created federal commissioners who pursued runaway slaves in any state. Made it easier for slave-owners to recapture slaves, but also easier for kidnappers to take free black ppl. because they were denied legal rights. Increased sectionalism.

New cards
7

Dred Scott v. Sanford, 1857

Dred Scott sued for his freedom on grounds that he had lived in free territory. Five of nine justices were Democrats. Court voted 7-2 to return Scott to his master. Ruled no black person, slave or free, could claim citizenship rights. Ruled congress could not prohibit slavery and that Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional.

New cards
8

John Brown, Harper's Ferry Raid, 1859

Militant abolitionist John brown seized US arsenal at Harper's ferry in 1859. Planned to end slavery by massacring masters. This raid convinced southerners that they couldn't safely stay in the Union. Viewed as martyr by Northerners.

New cards
9

Popular sovereignty, 1848

Pre-Civil war idea that residents of a territory should decide on slavery matters. Introduced by Michigan senator Lewis Cass as solution to problem of slavery. Senator Stephan Douglas coins the term.

New cards
10

Kansas - Nebraska Act, 1854

Introduced by Senator Stephan Douglas, repealed Missouri Compromise, established doctrine of congressional nonintervention. Stated popular sovereignty would determine slave/free status of Kansas + Nebraska. Wrote bill to gain Southern support, created much protest among Northerners, destroyed Compromise of 1850. Few laws as impactful.

New cards
11

Border states, 1861-1865

States bordering the North: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri. Slave states that did not secede. Lincoln used many methods to keep border states in Union.

New cards
12

Financing of the war effort by North and South

North was much richer, financed war through loans, treasury notes, taxes, tariffs on imports. South had financial problems b/c they printed money with no backing on gold/silver and faced inflation.

New cards
13

Habeas corpus, 1861-1865

Constitutional right protecting citizens from arbitrary arrest/detention. During Civil War, Lincoln suspended this to stop protests against draft + other disloyal activities. Transferred cases of disloyalty to military jurisdiction, fearing leniency from local juries. Democrats said Lincoln's actions were tyrannical.

New cards
14

Emancipation Proclamation, 1862-1863

September 22, 1862 - In preliminary version, Lincoln frees slaves in seceded states after Northern victory at Antietam. Since proclamation applied only to slaves in Confederacy outside Union control, it immediately freed only 1%. Border states keep slavery. Enlarged purpose of war. Union was now fighting slavery, not just secession. Also aimed to discourage European alliances w/ Confederacy.

New cards
15

Gettysburg, July 1-3, 1863

Crucial battle, Northern victory. Leaves 1/3 of Confederates dead/missing/wounded. Confed. Commander falls back and never able to invade again. Vicksburg falls the same week.

New cards
16

Conscription draft riots, July 11-13, 1863

Poor drafted disproportionately more. In NY they riot, killing 73. City put under order only after five regiments sent. Riot shows racial and social tensions in the North over War.

New cards
17

Radical Republicans, 1861-1877

After Civil War, group in Congress say South needs punishment. Though Lincoln was too compassionate. Headed by Thaddeus Stevens + Charles Summer. Some insisted on black suffrage and protection of black rights.

New cards
18

Ku Klux Klan, 1865

White-supremacist group in South after Civil War. Sought to intimidate through violence + murder, targeted claimants of political/economic/social equality w/ whites. Gov. intervenes in 1870s, but ultimately ineffective.

New cards
19

Sharecropping, 1865-onward

Labor system developed during Reconstruction. Freedman agreed to work land + pay part of crops to landowner in exchange for land/house/tools. Compromise between free black ppl. + white landowners. Freedmen wanted to work their own land but lacked money; White landowners need labor but did not have wage money.

New cards
20

Black Codes, 1865-1866

Enacted by former Confederate states. Restricted rights of freedmen. Prohibited Black ppl. from owning/renting land, entering professions, testifying against white ppl. in court. Forced them to sign work contracts. Showed Northerners that South had not changed + stronger Reconstruction needed.

New cards
21

Compromise of 1877

Struck during Election of 1877, Democrats accept election of Republican Rutherford Hayes in return for withdrawal of federal troops from South + ending of Reconstruction. This is "formal" end of Reconstruction; Northern efforts to remake South ended much earlier.

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(4)
note Note
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2916 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(10)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 412 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(6)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard34 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard54 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard89 terms
studied byStudied by 33 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard32 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard43 terms
studied byStudied by 52 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard71 terms
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard72 terms
studied byStudied by 50 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard45 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)