APUSH-Unit Four

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Judiciary Act, 1789

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Judiciary Act, 1789

Established a federal district court in each state and three circuit courts to hear appeals from the districts with the supreme court having the final say. Also specified that cases starting in state courts that involve federal laws could be appealed to the supreme court. This made sure that the federal judges had the final say on any matters about the meaning of the constitution. -This case set the precedent for the supreme court today regulating judges to turn to the constitution when ruling cases to see if they were lawfully ruling according to the rules of the constitution.

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Bill of Rights

A document of 10 amendments mainly created by James Madison which safeguarded personal rights(freedom of speech and religion) and mandated legal processes. -Calmed anti-federalist fears about an oppressive government and secured the legitimacy of the constitution. It also addressed federalism and clarified the balance between national government and state government.

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John Adams

The second president of the United states. Continued pro-british forgein policy as Hamilton had done under Washington. Was a part of the XYZ affair. He also passed the unpopular Sedition act and was very insecure about any threats to his ideas. -was important to the norms set regarding the amount of years a president can serve and how many terms they can serve. He was very controversial and was responsible for many of the tensions at the time, such as the tensions caused by the sedition acts. Many of his actions influenced the various constitutional arguments of the time period.

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Alexander Hamilton

-Was the treasury under Washington. He ruthlessly worked to become the person he was and is considered a person of great intelligence. He was a prominent lawyer in New York city and married into a powerful family. -He created 3 economically influential plans: on public credit (jan. 1790, a national bank (dec.1790) and on manufacturers(dec.1791). These outlined national mercantilism with government assisted economic development.

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Abigail Adams

-Wife of John Adams. Advocated for women's rights in the constitution and in general life. She was the first first lady of the United States. -she was a key political advisor to John Adams and her addresses to women rights were important to paving the way for women's roles in the united states. Her being the first first lady also set the norm for women to have some kind of political role in the government.

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Bank of the United States

Created by Alexander Hamilton, which would be jointly owned by private stockholders and the national government. He argued that the bank would ensure economic stability to the unstable American economy by making loans for merchants, handling national/government funds, and issuing bills of credit. -Many opposed the bill, such as thomas jefferson and james madison who called it unconstitutional. Hamilton was able to get congress to grant his bank a 20 year charter and it was sent to the president for approval. He used the constitution to prove that the bank was constitutional by saying that all laws which shall be necessary and proper may be added, the national bank being one of them.

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Whiskey Rebellion

In 1794 western Pennsylvania farmers started the ______ _________ to protest Hamilton's tax on spirits (alcohol). The tax had lessened the demand for whisky that farmers had been distilling. -The rebellion harassed the tax collectors who sent the farmers money to the national government which didn’t really matter to the farmers. They used the French Revs slogan of Liberty, Equality, Fraternity to protest. Eventually, Washington sent an army of 12,000 to squash the rebellion but it showed the new power of the government under the constitution and its power of the people.

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Jay’s Treaty

Washinton sent John Jay to Britain to discuss the protection of British Merchants. He accepted Britain's argument to stop neutral ships. It also required the government to pay back British Merchants for pre-revolutionary war debts. In return the Americans could submit claims for illegal seizures of goods on ships and required the British to remove their troops from the Northwest Territory. -Highly controversial as it gave the British certain powers over American trade and did not accomplish what Washington was trying to do. It was ratified in 1795, but only by 2⁄3 of the people. While the federalists were in power, there would be a pro-British forgein policy as they could provide us with the trade and goods that the Americans needed to grow their economies.

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XYZ Affair

After various French seizures of American merchant ships, the French prime minister sent 3 agents to solicit and loan and bribe American diplomats to stop the seizures. Adams dubbed these people X,Y, and Z and said that they violated American honor. -In response, congress cut off trade with France and issued american privateering (which is the seizure of French ships by licensed American vessels.) This reduced american trade to the French west indies (a source of economic prosperity for the americans) and created a maritime war with over 200 french and american ships being captured.

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Toussaint L’Ouverture

The leading man in the Hatian revolution-the only successful slave revolt. He created the first black republic of the Atlantic world. His acts created a dynamic of liberty over slavery and racial equality. -His work in the haitian revolution sent thousands of refugees to America and scared many americans as a nation of liberated citizen slaves went against their idea of republican ideals.

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Alien and Sedition Acts

The Alien act authorized the deportation of foreigners, and the sedition act prohibited the publication of insults or slander against the president or members of congress. These were brought upon after John Adams felt threatened by Irish immigrants as they insulted/critiqued his pro-British policies. -The sedition act caused more than 20 republican newspaper writers and publishers to be arrested and face jail time. Their rights to free speech were meant to be protected by the constitution and here John Adams directly violated that. This spiked a constitutional crisis. Created the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions which were encouraged by anti-federalists to condemn the sedition acts as it violated the constitution that was supposed to stop the federal government from abusing its power. John Adams acts also led to Thomas Jefferson being elected as president.

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John Marshall

One of the judges that was placed into office by John Adams as a push to get more federalists into the justice system before an anti-federalist president came into power. He was the new chief justice of the supreme court. When various states called the sedition acts unconstitutional, he argued that only the supreme court had the rights to hold constitutional review. Was the main man involved in Marbury v Madison. -He asserted his beliefs in the case leading to a new president being set, which talked about how the supreme court had to specify the law regarding constitutional matters. He also defined the supreme court's powers so that they were balanced and weren’t abusing their powers according to the constitution.

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Marbury v Madison

After a series of midnight appointments, William Marbury was refused a commission by James Madiosn. Marbury didn’t feel like he had the right to do that so they took it to the supreme court to get Marbury his commission, -Concluded that Marbury could be appointed, but the supreme court didn’t have the power to enforce it as it was unconstitutional. This case sent the president for the supreme court to consult the constitution in matters of justice and law. It also revised and checked their power and made sure that they were staying within the terms of the constitution.

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Louisiana Purchase

After Napoleon's actions in Haiti and Louisiana and his direct violation of the Pinckney treaty, Jefferson decided to do something about it. He went to try and purchase New Orleans so they didn’t have to worry about being blocked off from the mississippi. He used his connections in France to try and negotiate it. His diplomacy got him the entire Louisiana territory as Napoleon was under a lot of stress in both Haiti and Europe so to avoid invasion he just sold the whole thing. -This forced Jefferson to reconsider his strict interpretation of the constitution as there was nothing directly stating that the national government can purchase new land. This caused him to have to accept a loose version of the constitution and his actions didn’t follow that of a strict one.

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War of 1812

A war with Britain that was started with the intention to retrieve land, and stop impressment. It started due to the tension with the British, Native revolts, and war hawks who were pushing for a war. New England federalists opposed the war which lessened some of the fighting. Eventually, in 1814 the British got into Virginia and burned the white house in response to the Americans bringing the capital of York to canada. -Solidified the independence of the United States as they had beaten the British twice and it wasn’t just a case of luck the first time. It also showed their power as they could defeat one of the most powerful armies as a new nation. Finally, it solidified their land claims and quelled the native resistance in the west. The war also crumbled the federalist party.

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Embargo Act

A policy of peaceful coercion that prohibited American ships from leaving their ports until Britain and France stopped restricting US trade. -This act cut the ameran gnp by 5% and weakened the economy as the Americans depended more on the British and French than they did on the americans. This action hurt farmers and merchants. This act was eventually replaced due to popular discontent with it, but a true solution wasn’t found for a long time as it was a lasting issue as Americans depended on exports to fund their economy.

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War Hawks

Republican congressmen from the west were sure that Britain was the problem as they were influencing conflict with the natives and violating treaties. They wanted another war in order to settle the conflict with Britain once and for all. -Important as their presence in the government and as leaders as well as in the population urged another war with the British to settle things and it eventually caused the war of 1812.

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Tecumseh

a Shawnee war chief who was one of the tribes who obtained guns from the British. They, in response to people taking their lands, revived the western confederacy (a confederacy of western native tribes). They provided the people with an idea of strict nativism and urged the people to shun the americans. They decided to mobilize an army against the Americans in war. He eventually became a British general and died in the war. -Pushed the people into a war as the attack on the town sparked a force to come and quell the violence. With the British assistance they were getting, they were overly powerful, and due to prolonged conflict and no response from the British led to the evault declaration of war.

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Treaty of Ghent

A peace treaty signed on christmas eve 1814 that defined and retained the pre war borders of the united states without any territory claimed in canada or florida. -Gave the people new found confidence and allowed them a final push of a military victory in new orleans. The treaty also ended the main war and eventually led to the solidified borders of the United States and stopped British encroachment on their lands.

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McCullough v Maryland

When congress created the second Bank of the US in 1816, the bank could set up branches that competed with state-chartered banks. IN response the Maryland legislature created a tax on the bank notes from the second bank branch in baltimore. The second bank refused to pay as it felt that it infringed on national powers and was unconstitutional. They argued that congress didn’t have the power to create a national bank and if it was legitimate, the states could tax it. It was decided that the second bank was legitimate as it was necessary and proper and that Maryland did not have the power to tax it. -This case made clear the national vs. federal rights concerning the new consituatal banks created in the United States that were officially deemed necessary and popular. This gave the federal government more control which was once a shortcoming in the nation.

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American System

the national road way that went from Baltimore to st.louis. The first national roadway connecting one side of our country to another. -This was very significant as it was one of the first examples of a government sponsored program that was intended to help national conferences, trade, and industry throughout the country. Helped to unify the states and make trade easier.

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Era of Good Feelings

An era of political unity, population growth, and economic growth. A time of peace after a war as the nation continued to form. -This era helped to set precedent for the future building of the nation and showed how the nation could economically prosper with the help from the federal sanctions and how new territories were being built to continue to validate the constitution.

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Monroe Doctrine

Monroe, after the negotiation of florida and texas, he warned other european powers to keep their hands off of newly independent latin states. Officially, the doctrine said that the American continents were not subject to further colonization. He also agreed that America would not interfere in international concerns. -This asserted their diplomatic leadership in the western hemisphere and won international acceptance of the American boundaries.

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Panic of 1819

-By charter state banks making shady and not honest deals with people(by giving out loans and money in such a large amount) the bank notes being used lost their value. Prices of goods plummeted after Napoleon's wars and farmers and merchants could no longer afford to pay back large loans. -This panic caused many farmers to go bankrupt as they could no longer afford to pay back the debts that were loaned to them in excess. It gave Americans the first experience with the business cycle they were creating with the booms and busts of the economy. It devastated artisans and farmers who sold goods internationally or regionally.

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Republican Motherhood

after the birth rate decreased women began to accept greater responsibility for the welfare of children. Women needed to teach their children the proper ways of liberty and government. This was embraced by Christian ministers as it kept women in the home. -Changed the roles of women once again and kept women in the home during a time of growth for women pushing for rights outside the home and now they had responsibility to stay and specifically teach their sons the ways of liberty. It also raised a new society of males to be ready to rule in ways that would benefit the American society and create a sense of nationalism.

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Compromise of 1820 (Missouri Compromise)

After debates about Missoury becoming a slave or free states and manu arguements about the consitutioanlity of banning slavery there, Henry clay crated a series of potiical agreements. This allowed for maine to enter the union first then letting missouri follow as a slave state the keep the balance equal. Also, it was decided that all land north of 36 '30 was free besides missouri. -This solidified the north and south separation politically and sectionalized the country. The union was intertwined as the line wasn’t perfect and people had very strong views on the rights of african americans. This started the disagreements that led up to the civil war.

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Gibbons v Ogden

Regulated government control over interstate commerce based on the rights of the federal government written in the constitution. -A very famous court case that helped to prove which powers the federal government did and didn’t have along with what powers the states did and didn’t have. It solidified that the constitution had the final say and that the government could control any tariffs involving interstate trade and trade with the natives.

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Second Great Awakening

Evangelical denominations began to revive and spread their messages throughout New England. New sectors of religions also began to gain followers and grow. Baptist and Methodist churches gained popularity as people changed the way of preaching to appease the new society in the south. -transformed the denominational makeup of religion in America. Many of the original churches grew through natural increase (children being born into it etc) while baptist and methodist churches grew in large numbers through converts. People would go to different places on horses and preach and then leave. Their way of spreading their religion caused these two religions to be some of the largest denominations. It also brought back the idea that white men were suppreiror and that slavery was good and women had no power over their husbands. It also fostered cooperation among denominations vs. separation.

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American Colonization Society

a society that redefined slavery as a problem rather than a social condition. They claimed that owning slaves actually hindered economic progress. Many agrueged that slaves needed to be freed and then resettled-specifallcy back to where they came from. -Few people actually responded to their plee to free slaves, especially sense it was right during a cotton boom. Some 6,000 slaves were sent back to Liberia. Many free african americans opposed this as they saw themselves as americans, some being born in America. This also led to the union of African Americans and the establishment of churches surrounding them to unite the people.

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Shakers

A religious group started in New England by Mother Ann Lee. They migrated to America and attracted recruits. Their beliefs were based on quaker beliefs. -Gave women more power in the church as there was now a religion founded by one. The religion allowed for women to demonstrate their holiness and devotion to the church and it also gave them some power to share their beliefs. Women used these religious practices

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Waltham-Lowell System

a labor system that tapped into cheaper labor. This took advantage of young women from farm families. They were provided rooms and schooling (which was appealing for women at the time), held a strict curfew, prohibited alcohol, and required strict attendance to church. This prompted fathers to send their daughters to work. -allowed for women to serve a role in society and created a solution to British competition as now they had a way to pay less in wages which allowed for goods to be priced lower. It created even more competition against the British as they were able to continually produce large amounts of textile goods. Much of the wages paid to women went to benefit their families, or to benefit themselves. It gave women a sense of independence.

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Eli Whitney

The son of a New England farm family, helped to innovate machines. He started at a very young age, eventually went to Yale for college and in 1793 he created and patented the cotton engine (known as the cotton gin) which separated the seeds from the cotton. -From a very young age to the time of his death, he was innovating in order to make ordinary things better. He manufactured everything from knife blades to more advanced military weapons. His invention the cotton gin changed the face of the cotton economy and expedited farming and changed the need for slaves.

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Unions

After the clashing ideals of atricans ‘self-ownership’ and the idea that labor was bought and sold by a boss, some of the these workers banned together to create ______ and barder with their employers for better wages and less hours. -Some success led to presidents relating to the amount of work hours. Many different people bundled together to create many different unions across america. The national trade union was formed, which was the first regional union to ensure the rights of workers. The unions created the labor theory value which stated that the price of goods should reflect the labor required to create them. These unions even called for a new revolution in order to get what they demanded.

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Market Revolution

after the large construction of infrastructure linking the Atlantic coast to new states in the west, it was set up for a ______ ___________. These created a rich agricultural community in the arable lands to the west, which simultaneously moved industry there to manufacture those goods. -Created an even larger industrializing society that brought about America’s dependency on the manufacturing sectors of the United states. Led to even more infrastructure and innovations that changed the course of American history. One of the most important events in shaping the American economy.

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Erie Canal

Even with the new infrastructure in the United States, travel on land was slow and expensive. So, in 1871 New York began to finance the ____ _____ which was a 364-mile waterway connecting the hudson river to lake erie. -The largest man made a canal at the time. This benefited New York merchants who wanted access to western markets. It was the first great engineering project in America. It created many farm communities and market towns along the canal which created almost instant economic success. Northeastern shipment was expedited which allowed for goods to be produced faster and farms to yield more crops. The success sparked a national canal boom.

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The Clermont

The first steam American built a steam boat. The steam boat added crucial flexibility to the transportation system in the mississippi.

  • After it’s creation, vessels were able to improve off of it which cut costs in half for transportation. It was also quicker which increased the speed at which goods and information could travel from one place to another. The steam boat allowed for quicker transportation as the hulls were improved for movement and they could carry more cargo.

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Railroads

In the 1850’s the technological creation of ________ helped to quickly move goods and became one of the main forms of transportation along with the canal. At this time, people in the northeast heavily invested in new railroad lines which eventually spread to the midwest. -Helped the wheat industry grow as it could be transported far and through small towns. Different railroads could connect and bring goods from Michigan on a Chicago rail line to Iowa. It also allowed for goods to be more widespread, easier and cheaper so more people could enjoy the luxury of goods from other states. Also, it created technological innovations in goods productions as now there was a higher demand for exports so there needed to be a way to produce goods at a faster rate. They linked cotton planters to textile manufacturers across the nation.

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The Benevolent Empire

After disorder within the lower class communities, many tried to improve the world around them by embracing religious benevolence (kindness/consideration). Through this people congregated and created organizations of social reform which were known as the __________ ______. The goal was to restore the formal moral government of God by reducing alcohol consumption and other acts that brought people into poverty. -target things like alcoholism, adultery, protestuion etc. to clear up the impoverished communities. The societies they created helped to hold people accountable for their crimes. They created institutions to help the needy, homes for abandoned children, and asylums for the insane. The organizations established gave women purpose and employment. Many people-specifically workers and african americans did not like the forcing of other religious practices and resisted it resulting in the semi-failure of the benevolent empire.

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Temperance

a movement of social reform. With the abundance of alcohol in America, people began to become alcoholics as consumption spread to the workplace. Evangelical protestants took over the American temperance society in the effort to curb drinking. They utilized group confession, prayer, emotional conversion and female preachers, in order to get people to act more ‘holy’ in a sense. -Caused the average number of sports drinks annually from 5 gallons per person to 2 as people swore off excessive drinking. The movement, because it was religiously motivated, not only gave people a change of mind but a change of heart which was what made the movement really work.

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Nativism

movements that condemned immigration and asserted the beliefs and presence of protestant religions and values. These movements warned of various religious beliefs, such as chirstianity, proving to be harmful to the republican government. People feared an interference in American life and government. -Increased anti-catholic values and caused many catholics to be physically harmed at their places of work. These harsh beliefs created an undercut of the union as immigrants/catholics were accused of driving down wages. There were full scale riots and destruction of convents and catholic school buildings. It divided people along lines of religion and ethnicity.

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Thomas Jefferson

was an American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, architect, philosopher, and Founding Father who served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809. He was previously the second vice president under John Adams and the first United States secretary of state under George Washington. -He believed in a small frugal government and saw the ideal nation as one that had many small family farms(agrarian), wanted an educated population, believed in firm interpretations of the law, and was a statesman.

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the election of 1800

Thomas Jefferson, Aaron Burr, John Adams, and Charles C. Pickney all ran that year. Aaron Burr and John Adams tied and the election went to the house of representatives. After 35 ballots, Thomas Jefferson wins after Alexander Hamilton deemed Burr as unfit. After this nasty election, they thought that there would be bloodshed when coming into office. But, Jefferson came into office without any violent issues.

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constructionist

is a particular legal philosophy of judicial interpretation that limits or restricts such interpretation only to the exact wording of the law

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judiciary act of 1801

A series of Midnight appointments where president Adams appointed 16 new federal judges into office on the last night of his presidency so they could be a roadblock for Jefferson. This event sparked Marbury v. Madison and the concept of judicial review.

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Marshall Court

established the principle of "judicial review" whereby Congressional laws and executive actions may be judged by the Supreme Court to be within the bounds of the Constitution.

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James Monroe

greatest achievement as a diplomat was his negotiation of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Elected President of the United States in 1816 and in 1820, _____ ______ resolved long-standing grievances with the British, acquired Florida from Spain in 1819, and proclaimed the “Monroe Doctrine” in 1823.

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Napoleon

The leader of France at the time. Due to his various wars throughout Europe and the Haitian slave revolt, he abandoned his conquests in North America and sold the entire Louisiana territory to the united states.

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Haitian Slave Revolt

One of the only successful slave revolts in history. Was one of the reasons why Napoleon sold the entire Louisiana territory to the united states due to the loss of Haiti in the revolt.

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Lewis and Clark (1804-1806)

Meriwether _____ and William _____ were given $2500 from congress to explore the new territory and find a waterway to the pacific ocean. Their exploration brought back accurate maps, specimens, minerals, and improved relations with the native peoples. This was an extremely successful exploration and only resulted in one death which was from appendicitis and only 1 or 2 deserted.

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Sacagawea

Led the exploration of the Louisiana territory with Lewis and Clark. She spoke multiple languages and served as a translator. Her help with communication and the exploration was one of the many reasons for the exploration's success.

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July 11th 1804

Hamilton and Burr duel, leading to Hamilton's death and the universal unpopularity of Aaron Burr.

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Berlin Decrees (continental System)

Made all commerce and correspondence with great Britain illegal. They were mortal enemies and because of their ongoing offenses, they cut off trade and communication. Made by the french.

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Orders in Council (blockade of France)

A decision was made that no goods could go into France or out of France (created by the British)

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France-Milan Decrees

An order that said that the French could confiscate any vessel that submitted to British rules.

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Leopard Affair

A naval engagement that occurred off the coast of VA on Monday June 22, 1807 between the British warship HMS Leopard and the American frigate USS Chesapeake. This was caused by British Impressment and was one of the first real war-like conflict related to the tension.

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British impressment

5,000-10,000 US sailors were impressed(forced to serve in the British Royal Navy). This was one of the main causes of tension

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non-intercourse act (1809)

Replaced the embargo act. This opened trade to everyone BUT France and Great Britain. This was extremely hard to enforce as Madison would struggle to stop any illegal trade.

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Western Confederacy (1809)

A confederacy between the western native tribes to protect their lands from the encroaching american migrants. It was revived in order to keep oppose the Americans who were trying to remove them.

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battle of tippercanoe (1811)

After General William Henry Harrison(the governor of the Native territory) invited Native chiefs to Ft. Wayne to sign away 3 million acres of land to the U.S government, Tecumseh organized a confederacy of Natives to fight for their homelands. They fought Harrison, but the battle was quickly lost and Harrison became a national hero.

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Midterms of 1810

A time of discussion where 2 goals were established; gain territory in Canada and destroy Native American Resistance all together. Start of the rise of the war hawks.

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John C. Calhorn

was an American statesman and political theorist from South Carolina who held many important positions including being the seventh vice president of the United States from 1825 to 1832. He defended slavery and sought to protect the interests of the South.

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Mr.Madisons war

With the election looming, Madison issues an ultimatum to GB. When Britain fails to respond, Madison asks for congress to declare war. Both were in favor of war.

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August 24th 1814

White house was burned by the British during the war of 1812

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Battle of fort McHenry (1814)

The failed bombardment of ____ _______ forced the British to abandon their land assault on the crucial port city of Baltimore. This British defeat was a turning point in the War of 1812, leading both sides to reach a peace agreement later that year.

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Hartford Convention

Radicals in the federalist party called for an end to the war and some called for secession (northern states). This would lead to the end of the federalist party as they were seen as unpatriotic. War ended during this conference.

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battle of new orleans

On December 1st, 1814, Jackson entered New Orleans to strengthen its defenses. Despite being outnumbered, Jackson defeated the British forces in early January.

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Convention of 1818

solidified the boundaries with Britain (defined northern and western borders). Made it clear with the British what was theirs.

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Adams-onis treaty 1819

The transcontinental Treaty. Which negotiated with Spain and mexico and Texas to define the La border and it gave the united states Florida.

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Commonwealth System

government aid supported private business that improved the general welfare.

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Tariff of 1816

a protective tariff to bolster/strengthen u.s business.

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election of 1820

Monroe v. John Quincy Adams. Leading up to this election, Missouri applied for statehood and even prior to this, the slave state free state division was strict.

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the tallmadge amendment

An amendment to the Missouri app for statehood. It clarified that all slaves in Missouri were free at the age of 25. The north controlled the house an the south had just enough power to block them in the senate. The 1st time that slavery became a sectionalizing issue.

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John Quincy Adams

was an American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, and diarist who served as the sixth president of the United States, from 1825 to 1829. He previously served as the eighth United States Secretary of State from 1817 to 1825.

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the election of 1824 (the corrupt Bargain)

The election between Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, William Crawford and Henry Clay. After no one had won the majority vote for the electoral vote, the case went to the house. Henry clay and J.Q.Adams conversed and decided that Clay would tell all his followers to vote for Adams which Jackson called the corrupt Bargain.

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Cohens v. Virginia (1824)

Principle that the court could review the state court's interpretation of powers of the federal government. the supreme court established that the supreme court has the right to review state court decisions.

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Henry Clay

originally from kentucky. Described as hard-drinking and being a dynamic speaker in the house of representatives. Was one of the men to run in the presidential election of 1824. Based his candidacy on the American system. His goals were to strengthen the second national bank, raise tariffs, and use that money to fund internal improvements. -His and Adam’s economic policies were highly controversial. His work in the economy hurt the southern planters' cheap exports of raw materials and other goods for manufacturing.

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Andrew Jackson

Was one of the men to run for president in 1824, was a senator in Tennessee. He was the ‘hero’ in the battle that took place in New Orleans after the war of 1812 officially ended. Known as a plain solid republican. Even though he lost in 1824, he won the election in 1828. -He was one of the men who took advantage of the new ways of life in America and was able to build himself from almost nothing to much wealthier with political power. When he was president, he was put in a very fragile spot of political crisis which made many of his actions typically unliked.

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Tariff of 1828

A tariff, put into place by JQA and Henry Clay, that raised the price of duties on raw materials, textiles, and iron goods. -Enraged the south as they had previously produced the world's cheapest cotton and did not need to protect their flourishing industry. The tariff also cost the southerners around 100 million per year. Was eventually called the tariff of abominations due to its vast failures in the south.

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John C. Calhoun

One of the men to run for president in the election of 1824, was previously secretary of war under James Monroe. He wrote The South Carolina Exposition and Protest(written anonymously) which called on the issues with the tariffs that affected the regions differently. In this paper he exaggerated the severity of such legislation. He was a part of the Whig party but he contradicted the ideas of equality (as there was so much slavery). He had a class conscious social ideology which put the elite above everyone. -His role in the Whig party and his opposition to most of the lower class people (many of which were in the Whig party) led to his struggle to be president as many of his ideals were right between the two political parties or mostly independent of either. His work was important to getting Jackson to remove some of the southern tariffs

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Nullification Crisis

In South Carolina, officials called a state convention and ordered an Ordinance of Nullification against the tariffs of 1828 and 1832(33% tax instead of the 50% in 28) with the intention of them to be null and void. -People could not agree about whether this was constitutional or unconstitutional. It was argued that because the different states ratified the constitution, they had the right to interpret it and void anything passed by the federal government within state borders. It was decided by Jackson that the federal government had the right to create tariffs and it was unconstitutional for them to oppose it. Jackson eventually threatened to force South Carolina to agree to stop the nullification and the tariff was altered. The constitutional stance on nullification was not re-addressed until Lincoln’s presidency.

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81

The Bank War

Surrounding the second bank of the United states. Jackson, supported by friends in the south, wanted an end to the bank and central oversight as regionally, the bank supported the north but hurt the economy in the south. Jackson eventually vetoed the bill with strong constitutional arguments and ‘attacked’ the bank. -After Jackson's arguments, the bank was practically destroyed and with his support from the west and east urban residents, he was able to win the election and go through with his plans of removing the bank. In 1833, he got his treasurer, Roger B. Taney to transfer the federal government's reserves to the various state banks. Jackson sweepingly claimed presidential power and he acted independently from congress. The war over the bank created a political battle. The president was censured and warned about tyranny after his opposing party in the senate passed a resolution. In the end, the bank ‘died’ and Jackson had undone the hard work of Hamilton and removed any protective tariffs.

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82

The Indian Removal Act, 1830

The Cherokee tribes in Georgia were resisting the idea of removal as the land was very important to them. Some had tried to avoid removal by accepting certain aspects of assimilation, while others made strong arguments about keeping their ancestral land. Georgia was the first state to begin to remove the Natives. Jackson gave Georgia full support and in 1830, Jackson punished the _____ ______ ___ _ _ _ _ _ through congress. Even though many people had petitioned, the bill won in the house of representatives 102-97. -The act would move the Natives into the modern day Oklahoma and Kansas. They promised money and reserved land to the Natives who agreed to move and said that there would be goods in abundance. After some resistance, Jackson sent troops to expel people by force. The army was able to move groups like the Black Hawks west into Wisconsin, but not without killing 850 of the 1,000 troops. The diplomatic pressure forced 70 tribes to sign treaties and move west.

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83

Trail of Tears

After Cherokee resistance In Georgia and court cases such as Cherokee nation v. Georgia and Worcester v. Georgia the U.S government decided to take their land from them. American officials and a minority Cherokee fashion agreed on the Treaty of New Echota which specified that cherokees would resettle. When only 2,000 of the 17,000 resettled by the deadline, the government rounded up 14,000 cherokees and marched 1,200 miles. -3,000 Natives died of starvation and exposure. Because of what happened with the American government, they created their own which ended up being very racial segregated. As the United States was a white man's country, the Native lands would be a Ref man's country and those who were mixed race (African+Native) were excluded from office.

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84

Roger B. Taney

The secretary of state under Jackson who was responsible for demolishing the second national bank. During his time he partially reversed the nationalist and vested-property-rights decisions of Marshall court and gave constitutional legitimacy to many of Jackson’s policies of state’s rights and free enterprise. -His work changed some of Marshal’s interpretations of the constitution. His time was known as Taney court as he participated in many famous court cases that created cheaper transportation, protected public rights, limited Marshal;s nationalistic interpretation of the constituion(which gave the states more power economically and over policies such as immigraiton). His work also spiked many constitutional revolutions within the states, 20 states called conventions to re-evaluate their powers. (many of these were anti-public business and federal oversight conversations that changed the powers of the states).

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85

The Panic of 1837

Began after the Bank of England tried to boost the British economy by sharply reducing the amount of money flow into the United states. Because British investors were the ones who funded many of the extensions of cotton plantations in the south and the canals in the north, the withdrawal of money from the British caused many to have to withdraw money from state banks in order to pay for their various things. Also, the British withdrawal caused cotton to drastically drop in price. -Threw off the American workers movement and economy. People’s values were discarded as they tried to save the economy. The drain of money from local banks and the drop in cotton prices prompted a financial panic. After a bank in New York had run out of specie(a type of coin) it prompted the withdrawal of gold and silver coins from other banks. The financial panic prompted a crisis as American banks completely stopped trading species. To stop the issue, many state governments began to invest more money into canals and railroads. But, many were unable to pay for all the money they guaranteed. This prompted a deep depression. Canal construction dropped by 90% and wages fell by 50%. The drop in cotton prices pushed planters into bankruptcy. Due to the unemployment caused by this, there was decline in the union movement.

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86

William Henry Harrison

A man from Ohio who was appointed by the Whigs to be president in 1840 and for john tyler to be his vice president. He was a military hero of the battle of Tippecanoe and the war of 1812. He was 68 years old and had little political experience. He believed in the Whig agenda and said that he would help to get the protective tariffs and national bank back. -He won the presidential election with help from the intense Whig party, but only one month after he was put into the presidency, he died of pneumonia.

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87

John Tyler

Part of the Whig party, originally the vice president under WIlliam Henry Harruson. After his death he took the presidential oath of office and despite him technically being a part of the Whig party said that he would govern however he pleased. -He committed to slavery and states rights. Economically, he did like the national bank or the American system which was exactly what the Whigs wanted. He vetoed Whig bills that would have created protective tariffs and created another national bank. Upset by his actions that were against the WHig party, many of his cabinet resigned and the Whigs expelled Tyler from their party.

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88

Specie Circular

An executive order placed by the treasury under Jackson that required the treasury department to only accept payment for lands in gold and silver. -The system was blamed as one of the causes for the panic of 1837 as it drained a lot of the species from the economy. This was put into place in order to get more gold and silver into the economy so that things like the panic wouldn’t happen.

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89

Transcendentalism

An intellectual movement rooted in the religious soil of New England. The movement was inspired by European romanticism, a new conception of self and society. In romanticism, they rejected the rational world of the eighteenth century enlightenment and embraced human passion and deeper insight on human existence. The main message was individual self realization. -The message reached hundreds of thousands of people through Emerson’s lectures and writings. The movement, looking to bring back intellectual thoughts, created many social experiments that eventually turned out to be economic failures.

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90

Ralph Waldo Emerson

One of the leading voices of transcendentalism. He was a New England essayist and philosopher. He was also a Unitarian(believed that god was a single being(not part of the holy trinity)). He believed that individuals could be remade by discovering their original relationship with nature. -He lectured throughout the north and midwest(where it was most popular) and he became one of the most popular speakers delivering 1,500 lectures in more than 300 towns. His words spoke almost directly to the middle class Americans who had made their way to the urban world. He ended up being against the new Market society as it caused people to lose their spirituality.

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91

Henry David Thoreau

A young New England intellectual who, after being inspired by Emerson, got inspiration from the natural world. After losing his brother and falling into a depression, he built a cabin in the woods and lived there for two years. He eventually wrote Walden, or Life in the Woods. -He writing endured justification for independent thinking. He worked to get men to go through self-realization and warned people to not always go with social-norms if they want to find their own spirituality.

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92

Margaret Fuller

Explored the possibilities of freedom for women. She was born into a wealthy Boston family and was highly educated knowing six lauganged and having great skills in literature. She embraced Emerson’s ideals and started a conversation group for educated Boston women in 1839. He published some of her work in various magazines. -Embraced that all people could have a life-affirming relationship with god. So, every woman deserves psychological and social independence. She was invited to Italy to report on the revolution, but she died in a shipwreck on the way back. Her work inspired rising generations of women writers and reformers.

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93

Walt Whitman

A poet who also responded to Emerson’s ideas. He was a printer, a teacher, a journalist, an editor, and a popular democratic publicist. He published Leaves of grass, a collection of poems which attempted to transcend boundaries between solitude and community, living and the dead, and poetry and prose. -He used the idea of a perfect communication with nature to create his poetry. For him, the collective democracy was sacred and he combined those ideals with Emersonn’s to create his poetry.

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94

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints

Mormons. They were a religious utopia with a strict goal- to perpetuate close-knit communities and patriarchal power. Founded by Joseph Smith Jr. who began to have religious experiences like seeing the light and he believed that god had singled him out to have a revelation of divine truth. They follow the Book of mormon, which was apparently translated from gold plates shown to him by Moroni the angel. Lots of people hated the mormons. -due to their cohesiveness, authoritarian leadership, and size they were more radical and successful. They encouraged self-improvement ways of life that would create successful people in the face of the market society. The morons were hostile towards other sects and refused to vote which made them very unliked. They also encouraged polygsamy(having a bunch of wives). One of the only successful ‘social experiments’ of the time.

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95

Brigham Young

-The new prophet of the mormon church. After struggling to find a permanent settlement for the moromon faith they fled the united states and crossed to the mexican territory in present day Utah(specifically salt lake city). In 1850 he became the governor of the new Utah territory. -Encouraged the self-productiveness of the mormon faith and was able to set up cooperative labor and self-irrigation systems. His governing did spike a mormon war which resulted in the deaths of those who didn’t agree with him.

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96

Minstrel Shows

A very popular form of theater where white men would dress in blackface and perform comical routines that combined racism and social criticism. Beginning in the 1830s people would put on blackface and make companies to essentially sing and dance in order to portray the African Americans as lazy, sensual, irresponsible, and irresponsible. They were also used to comment on white society by mocking the darkness of Irish immigrants, the English of German immigrants, and denouncing womens demands for political rights. -These people declared the importance of being white and spread racist ideals to new immigrants. It put African Americans even lower under white people as now they were famously being mocked in shows for hundreds to see.

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97

Nat Turner

A slave in virginian who statged a bloody revolt against the white slave owners. He had taught himself to read as a child and he had hoped for emancipation. But, one slave owner forced him to work and another separate him from his wife. He turned to religion, claiming that he had a vision of the spirit and he should take what he has and fight. In August of 1831 Turner and a handful of relatives and friends killed at least 55 white men, women, and children. -He had hoped that more would join him in his rally, but only 60 came and his rebellion was quickly quashed by the white army force. His rebellion and murder caused one company to kill 40 African Americans in two days and put 15 of their heads on poles to warn others to not revolt as he did. Turner was eventually hanged for his actions. The fear caused by the revolt prompted Virginia to enact a bill of providing gradual emancipation and moving the emancipated abroad, but this bill failed. Instead, people toughtned their slave codes, limiting black rights even more.

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98

William Lloyd Garrison

a Massachusetts born printer and one of the most determined abolitionists. He had worked in the 1820s on an antislavery newspaper and in the 1830s he went to jail for harming a merchant who was engaging in the domestic slave trade. After reading a bold pamphlet written by an english quaker, he demanded immediate emancipation with no compensation to slave owners. In 1833, Garrison and sixty other religious abolishonists established the American Anti-slavery society. -Women established separate groups based off of Garrisons. These women then carried the movement to other small towns spreading abolitionist literature and antislavery petitions. His creation of the Anti-slavery society was utilied quite a lot and ecventualyl led to the underground railroad and the mass production of anti-slavery pamphlets to spread the message.

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99

Sarah Grimke

Worked with Theodore Weld in the fight against slavery. Her and her sister Angelina left their fathers plantation, converted to quakerism and joined the anti-slavery movemnet. With Weld, they wrote American slavery as it is: Testimon of a Thousand Witnesses which addressed the actual condition of slaves in the u.s. They used reports of vioence in order to get their point across that slavery was very bad. -The book she helped write sold more than 100,000 copies in a single year, as using images and descriptions of violence done to slaves in order to sway people away from slavery.

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100

Underground Railroad

An informal network of whites and free blacks that assisted fugitives to secured lodging and jobs in free states. People would loan identification to others to escape to free states and people like Harriet Tubman and other runaways risked re-enslavement helping others escape. -The railroad allowed for one thousand African Americans to reach freedom in the North each year. This was another step in the movement for freedom as people began to go behind others backs in order to achieve freedom. This movement also gave people to confidence to do things such as attack slave catchers as it gave people ‘confidence’ to continue to help free slaves.

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