Integumentary System

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Functions of the integumentary system

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1

Functions of the integumentary system

-protection (uv rays, chemicals, bacteria)

-sensation (nerve endings)

-temperature regulation

-vitamin d production

-excretion

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2

Epidermis layers (deep to superficial)

stratum basale

stratum spinosum

stratum granulosum

stratum lucidum

stratum corneum

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3

Stratum Basale

-deepest layer of epidermis with the youngest living cells.

-most rapid cell division

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4

Stratum Spinosum

(spiny layer) layer of the epidermis that provides strength and flexibility to the skin; highest mitotic rate

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5

Stratum granulosum

flattened cells; produce keratin that grow hair and nails

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6

Stratum lucidum

clear layer on palms and soles

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Stratum corneum

outer layer of the epidermis consisting of a thick layer of dead cells. scalelike, slough off

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8

Dermis Layers

papillary

reticular

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9

Papillary

areolar connective tissue; includes dermal papillae

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10

Reticular

network of collagen and reticular fibers

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Keratinocytes

deepest epidermal cells, produce keratin.

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Melanocytes

cells that produce melanin in epidermis (dark skin pigment)

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13

Merkel cells

sensory nerve endings in epidermis

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14

Langerhans cells

epidermal macrophages that help activate the immune system

(ex. dendritic cells)

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15

Dermis cells

fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, WBCs

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Fingerprints

ridges formed by the dermal papillae, in the papillary layuer of the dermis

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17

Where do hair and nails come from?

hard keratin that is formed in the stratum granulosum

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18

Where is the hypodermis located?

below the skin

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19

Hypodermis

fat located under the dermis, helps insulate the body and protect underlying muscles and structures.

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Melanin

most important gives skin color

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21

Carotene

yellow-orange pigment from carrots and yellow veggies

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22

Hemoglobin

pink of light skin

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23

Types of hair

vellus: fine, short hairs

intermediate hairs

terminal: longer, courser hair

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24

Functions of hair

protection (scalp)

sense (light touches on skin)

warmth (less in mammals)

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25

Apocrine

creates odor while exiting through hair follicles in the axillary, anal, and genitals; functions as scent glands

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Addison's disease

appearance of tan bronzed skin

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Contact dermatitis

An inflammation of the skin caused by having contact with a substance

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Seborrhea

yellowish scum built up on scalp. scaly dandruff like

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Cyanosis

blue discoloration of the skin

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Jaundice

yellowing of the skin due to bilirubin build up or liver disorder

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Erythema

redness (blushing)

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Hematoma

bruise (clotted blood)

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Malignant

cancerous

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34

First degree burn

Superficial burn of epidermis resulting in redness (ex.sunburn)

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Second degree burn

epidermis and upper dermis are damaged, skin is red with blisters

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Third degree burn

full thickness (white,red,black)

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37

Rule of 9's

Calculates percent of body burned for rehydration

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38

Epidermis as a whole

major skin area that produces derivatives (hair/nails)

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Bedsore

bony projections go into skin resulting in restriction of blood supply causing tissue death

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Sensory receptors in the Dermis

pain, pressure, temperature

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Greatest risks for severe burn victims

infection and dehydration

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42

ABCD rule

asymmetry, border irregularity, color, diameter (>6mm)

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43

Eccrine glands

true sweat and exits through pores to regulate body temperature

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Benign

not cancerous

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