Exam 2

studied byStudied by 35 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

The Earth's primitive atmosphere probably consisted of substantial amounts of

1 / 66

Studying Progress

0%
New cards
67
Still learning
0
Almost done
0
Mastered
0
67 Terms
1
New cards

The Earth's primitive atmosphere probably consisted of substantial amounts of

hydrogen

New cards
2
New cards

Why is the Earth's atmosphere so different from that of the other terrestrial planets?

water dissolved the CO2 and plants made oxygen

New cards
3
New cards

Which surface feature is found on all terrestrial planets and the Moon?

craters

New cards
4
New cards

Much of the water on Mars

in a layer of permafrost, locked in seasonal ice cap

New cards
5
New cards

Tharsis region on mars has so few craters, this suggest that

its the youngest region on the planet

New cards
6
New cards

which is not icy in composition

asteroidswh

New cards
7
New cards

ice are icy in composition

comet nucleus, Kuiper Belt objects, jovian satellites

New cards
8
New cards

What is true about solar system densities?

denser planets lie closer to the sun

New cards
9
New cards

the major presence of water detected on the moon is in

floors of deep craters

New cards
10
New cards

the scarps on mercury were probably caused by

crust cooling and shrinking

New cards
11
New cards

what characteristics of satellites give us clues about their origins?

direction, tilt, and shape of their orbits

New cards
12
New cards

On our moons, Mercury, Earth, and Mars, there is a variety of meteor crater sizes. Yes the ones on Venus are over 5km across. Why is this?

smaller meteors burn up in its thick atmosphere

New cards
13
New cards

What us the most abundant gas in Mars and Venus atmosphere?

CO2

New cards
14
New cards

Why is CO2 more abundant on mars and Venus than Earth?

Oceans dissolve it and life removes it

New cards
15
New cards

Surface features on Europa?

cracks in icy surfaceSu

New cards
16
New cards

face feature on Titan?

liquid methane rivers

New cards
17
New cards

What makes Io stand out in our solar system?

most volcanic, always changing

New cards
18
New cards

What drives geologic activity in terrestrial planets and moons?

internal heating- radioactivity core

New cards
19
New cards

Why in general do small planets have less geologic activity than larger planets?

interiors cool and solidify faster

New cards
20
New cards

What are exceptions to smaller planets having less geologic heating?

Some experience tidal heating

New cards
21
New cards

What processes shape the surface of terrestrial planets and moons?

geologic activity- plates and volcanoes, erosion, and impacts

New cards
22
New cards

How do we age date surfaces of planets?

number of craters

New cards
23
New cards

What do we mean by primordial atmospheres of planets?

original ones they formed with

New cards
24
New cards

what are the primordial atmospheres of planetary bodies?

H and He

New cards
25
New cards

Why do some planets lose their primordial atmospheres?

lighter elements reach escape velocities because smaller and warmer temperature

New cards
26
New cards

How do we think magnetic fields are generated in planets

metallic liquid core and fast rotation

New cards
27
New cards

What do we mean by differentiation

denser material in center, less dense more outward

New cards
28
New cards

What characteristics do all terrestrial planets have in common

rocky, differentiated structure, dense, few or no moons, cratering

New cards
29
New cards

What do all jovian planets have in common

massive, gas giants, low density, rings, lots of moons

New cards
30
New cards

how do the ring systems in jovian planets originate

objects get stuck in orbit and Roche limit

New cards
31
New cards

How and why did the solar system originate the way it did?

formed as a disk so planets orbit in same plane and direction

New cards
32
New cards

Why is the solar system laid out like that (dense inner, massive, less dense outer)?

differentiation

New cards
33
New cards

How and why is the solar system composed like that

further from sun, lower temp, affects other aspects

New cards
34
New cards

What are ways we detect exoplanets

astrometric, direct imaging, transit, radial velocity

New cards
35
New cards

Precisely measuring an exoplanets position in the sky and how changes over time

astrometry

New cards
36
New cards

nearly impossible and difficult; done directly with telescopes to find exoplanets

direct imaging

New cards
37
New cards

planet outside of the solar system

exoplanet

New cards
38
New cards

observing an exoplanet as it crosses its host star; measures depth, duration, and brightness

transit

New cards
39
New cards

measures the speed which an exoplanet moves towards or away from the earth

radial velocity

New cards
40
New cards

the distance from a star that can have water and host life

habitable zone

New cards
41
New cards

structure of the sun (Out to in)

chromosphere, photosphere, convection zone, radiation zone, core

New cards
42
New cards

How does the sun generate energy

fusion of light nuclei to make heavier ones

New cards
43
New cards

What are sunspots

dark, cooler sports

New cards
44
New cards

how do sunspots relate to energy output of the sun

related to magnetic fields

New cards
45
New cards

The sun is about _____ times larger than the earth

100 times

New cards
46
New cards

the sun's average density is roughly the same as that of

water

New cards
47
New cards

the sun spins on its axis roughly once each

month

New cards
48
New cards

AS the distance from the center of the sun increases, the density

decreases faster than temperature

New cards
49
New cards

appearance of cells on the sun's surface; 1000km across

solar granules

New cards
50
New cards

as we move further above the solar photosphere, the temperature

decreases then increases

New cards
51
New cards

fragments of icy material that normally orbit far from the sun

comets

New cards
52
New cards

spherical halo surrounding solar system; vast reservoir of cometary material

Oort Cloudpiece

New cards
53
New cards

s of interplanetary debris that enter earths atmosphere

meteoroids

New cards
54
New cards

meteoroid that reaches the ground

meteorite

New cards
55
New cards

where in the solar system do comets reside

Kuiper Belt and Oort cloud

New cards
56
New cards

parts of a comet

nucleus, coma, hydrogen envelope, tail, ion tail, dust tailco

New cards
57
New cards

most main belt asteroids are about the size of

small us city

New cards
58
New cards

asteroid groups with the smallest perihelion distances also have orbits that are

most eccentric

New cards
59
New cards

Spectroscopic studies reveal most asteroids contain large fractions of

carbon

New cards
60
New cards

Trojan asteroids on jupiters orbits are located

before and after jupiter

New cards
61
New cards

tails of a comet point

away from the sun

New cards
62
New cards

long period comet orbits can come from

all directions

New cards
63
New cards

Kuiper Belt objects are not planets because of their

low mass and cant clear objects

New cards
64
New cards

no solid surface, rotation rates differ

differential rotation

New cards
65
New cards

jupiters atmosphere

hydrogen

New cards
66
New cards

a moon placed at a planets Roche limit will

break into smaller pieces

New cards
67
New cards

saturns core

icy and rocky

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4122 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(65)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard113 terms
studied byStudied by 42 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard33 terms
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard127 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard39 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard32 terms
studied byStudied by 21 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard53 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard34 terms
studied byStudied by 31 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(5)
flashcards Flashcard33 terms
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)