OT 500 - Exam 2

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siblings positive developments aspects

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Health

79 Terms

1

siblings positive developments aspects

Cooperation

Teaching/imitating

Nurturance

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2

fuctional play

repetitive motor activity; use objects for intended purpose

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pretend play

make-believe activities in which children create new symbolic relations, acting as if they were in a situation different from their actual one

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formal play

games with rules

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solitary play

independent play

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onlooker play

watches others playing but doesn't engage

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nonsocial play

children dont interact

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8

three types of nonsocial play

unoccupied

solitary

onlooker

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9

social play

Children influenced by others as they play

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10

four types of social play

parallel

associate

cooperative

competitive

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11

parallel play

similar toys, separate from each other but next to them

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12

associative play

interested in the people playing but not coordinating their activity with the people

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13

cooperative play

interested in the kids playing and participating, is organized

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14

siblings negative developments aspects

Conflict

Control

Competition

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15

first born

More highly motivated to achieve, more cooperative, adult-oriented

Show greater anxiety, less self-reliant

More likely to have imaginary playmate

Get more attention

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later born children

Tend to be more popular with peers

More rebellious, liberal, and agreeable

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17

constructive/construction play

draw or make something (i.e. building with blocks, craft projects)

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unoccupied play

play that seems random and without purpose

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competitive play

children at this age start to accept competition with structured rules and highly interactive physical activity

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20

feminine gender roles

dependence, gentleness, helpfulness, warmth, emotionality, submissiveness, home-orientation, talkative, artistic, cautious, appreciative, patient, shy

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21

male gender roles

aggressiveness, self-confidence, independence, competitiveness, competence in business, math and science, tough, realistic, pleasure-seeking, courageous

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22

evolution and heredity

Natural selection, adaptation; Survival set passed through genes

Organization of the Brain: Males use both hemispheres (right and left slightly more specialized in males); females use right hemisphere more

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23

sex hormones

Activity preferences (boys tend to gravitate towards wheeled objects but girls are flexible and use a variety of toys)

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organization of the brain

Males use both hemispheres (right and left slightly more specialized in males); females use right hemisphere more

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social cognitive theory

Rewards and punishment; observational learning

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2-2.5 yo gender identity concept

label the sexes, can identify in pictures

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3 yo gender identity concept

knowledge of gender stereotypes (eg. activities, occupations); view own gender positively

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4 yo gender identity concept

Gender stability develops

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29

development of self concept at 3 yo

describe themselves largely by external physical traits rather then internal traits

Most young children have positive self-esteem

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30

development of self concept between 4-5 yo

begin evaluative judgments and begin to define themselves in terms of what they are and are not good at, and by the acceptance of their peers and parents.

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31

literacy skills: print motivation

showing interest in books (hold them)

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literacy skills: vocab

knowing the names of things

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literacy skills: print awareness

ability to point to the world on the page of a book

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literacy skills: narrative

being able to understand and tell a story and describe those things

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literacy skills: letter knowledge

being able to recognize letters (capital and lowercase)

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36

literacy skills: phonological awareness

being able to manipulate sounds of words (rhyme)

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37

kids 2-3 yo gross motor movement

Walks up stairs two feet on each step

Tosses a ball but with poor accuracy

Kicks a large ball

Runs quickly – can change direction and stop without falling, though not a well-coordinated running gait (stiff)

Pedals a trike

Jumps clearing both feet about 6 inches

Hops on one foot 1-3x

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38

kids 4-6 yo gross motor movement

Walks up and down stairs alternating feet

Catches small ball

Loves playground equipment; pumps a swing

Rides a bike first with, then without training wheels

Can skip and somersault

Jumps forward 3 feet; stands on one foot 5-10s; hops on one foot 6-10x

Learns skills like swimming, skiing, skating, using a skateboard/scooter

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kids 3-4 yo gross motor movement

Builds tower of 6-12 cubes & strings 4 beads

Snips with scissors; cuts simple straight & curved lines

Hand preference is emerging and then usually clear

Uses fingers & pincer to grasp, but not a mature tripod grasp yet (digital pronate or paint brush grasp)

Copies circle, cross, simple letters

Puts toothpaste on toothbrush and brushes teeth

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40

childrens drawings 2-3 yo

placement stage

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41

childrens drawings 3-4 yo

shape stage and design stage (combining shapes)

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42

children drawings 4-5 yo

pictorial stage (resemble recognizable objects)

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43

sleep during early childhood

Preschoolers average 10 to 11 hours per 24-hour period

9 to 10 hours at night

1 to 2 hour nap

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44

enuresis

failure to control the bladder

Based on age of child and frequency of “accident”

Bed-wetting is more frequent in boys than girls

Occurs most often during deep sleep (10% of children)

Numerous causes: physical, psychological, stress, sleep disorder

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encopresis

lack of control over your bowels

More common in boys than girls

Less common than enuresis

more common in daytime

Causes may be physical (constipation, not drinking enough water) or psychological (stress)

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Causality

influenced by egocentrism

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47

transductive reasoning

from specific to specific (but the two things aren't connected)

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48

Animism

attribute life qualities to inanimate objects

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49

Artificalism

environmental features were made by people (the clouds are white because someone painted them that color)

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50

conservation

Properties remain the same even if you change the shape or arrangement; preoperational children fail to demonstrate

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51

centration

focus on one dimension of objects

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52

Irreversibility

don’t understand that actions can be reversed

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53

class inclusion

requires the child to focus on more than one aspect of situation at once

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54

Cognitive scaffolding

often occurs with interactions with older more knowledgeable individuals

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55

preschool enrichment programs (headstart)

Designed to increase school readiness

Provide health care and social services to children and families

Encourage parental involvement

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56

short term benefits of early childhood education

Positive influence on IQ scores

Gains in school readiness and achievement

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57

long term benefits of early childhood education

Better high school graduation rates

Less likely to be delinquent, unemployed, or on welfare

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58

Vgotsky's theory

Children think and understand primarily through social interaction

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59

scripts

Formed after one experience

Become more elaborate with repetition

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60

fast mapping

quickly attach new words to appropriate concepts

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whole object assumption

assume words refer to whole objects, not parts or characteristics

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contrast assumption

assume objects have only one label

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overregularization

apply regular grammatical rules

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64

language milestones for 2-2.5 yo

Uses 2-3 word sentences

Articulation is poor

Uses up to 500 or more words

Uses past tense, plurals, possessives

No more babbling

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65

language milestones for 3 yo

Over 1000 words with 75-100% intelligible

“L’s” and “r’s” are hard

3-4 word sentences

Asks “wh” questions

uses yes/no answers

Uses negatives

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66

language milestones for 4-5 yo

1500-2000 words

Speech is fluent; coordinates 2 or more 5-6 word sentences

LANGUAGE used to comment, request, share, give info, ask for info, express feelings

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67

pragmatics

Ability to adjust speech to fit the social situation (baby talk with children, more serious as a doctor)

Between 3 and 5 years it develops

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68

autobiographical memory

seldom lasts into adulthood; linked to development of language skills

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69

HOME (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment)

Parent emotional and verbal responsiveness

Avoidance of restriction and punishment

Organization of the physical environment

Provision of appropriate play materials

Parental Involvement

Opportunities for variety in daily stimulation

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70

during preoperational development there is confusion between mental and physical phenomena

Believe their thoughts reflect external reality

Believe dreams are true

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71

parental warmth relates to

• Development of moral conscience

• Positive social and emotional well being

• Affection towards children (hugging)

• not going to reject child based on behavior

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72

parental coldness relates to

• View kid from negative standpoint

• Don't want to be around them

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73

permissive parents

• allow children to do what's natural (make noises, use toys how they want)

• don't impose rules

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74

restrictive parents

• Impose rules

• Watch kids closely

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75

authoritative parenting

• High on Warmth, High on Restrictiveness

• Self-reliance, independence, high self-esteem, and social competence

Clear expectations; respect their

children,

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76

authoritarian parenting

• Low on Warmth, High on Restrictiveness

• Less socially competent, lower self-reliance, and self-esteem and high virtue on obedience

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77

permissive/indulgent parenting

• High Warmth, Low Restrictiveness

• Less competent in school but fairly high in social competence and self-confidence

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78

rejective-neglecting parenting

• Low Warmth, Low Restrictiveness

• Least competent, responsible, and mature children

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79

inductive techniques

Reasoning... not very effective with children under two years of age; must be very basic; involves teaching

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