# unit 5 physics

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trolley experiment

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1

trolley experiment

• connect a trollet to a piece of string, that goes over a pulley, and is connected on the other side to a hook

• mark staring line on table using ruler, trolley always travel the same distance

• place trolley on start line, holding the hook so the string is taut, and release it, stopwatch

• add 50g, x8, repeat each one 2x

• accelerating force = weight of hook + masses attached, accelerates both the trolley and masses, so are investigating the acceleration of the system,

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2

work done

• work is done when energy is transferred from one store to another, and when a force causes an object to move

• when a force causes an object to move through a distance, work is done on the object

• so a force does work on an object when the force causes the displacement of the object

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3

non contact forces

magnet, electrostatic, gravitational

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4

scalar

• temperature

• mass

• energy

• distance

• speed

• density

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5

vector

• force

• displacement

• velocity

• acceleration

• momentum

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6

newtons 2nd law

acceleration of an object is proportional to the resultant force acting on the object, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object

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7

gear system

transmit the rotational effects of forces

driven gear larger, rotate more slowly but with a greater moment, as distance to pivot is greater

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8

spring experiment

attach spring to the top clip and ruler to the bottom, adjust ruler so its vertical nad with its zero level with the top of the spring

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9

velocity, circular

• object is traveling in a circular motion, object is constantly charged direction, so the velocity is constant change, however it can still be travelling at a constant speed

• change in velocity is defined as acceleration, so although the object isn’t speeding up, accelerating due to changing direction

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10

weight definition

the force of gravity acting on an object due to gravity and mass

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11

how to measure weight

measured using a calibrated spring balance, newtonmeter

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12

lever

effort applied to rotate one end about the centre, opposite end is also rotated about the pivot in the same direction

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13

contact forces

• reaction

• friction

• air resistance

• tension

• normal contact

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14

floating and sinking works

object that’s less dense than fluid its placed in weighs less than the equivalent volume of fluid. means it displaced a volume of fluids that’s equal top its weight before its completely submerged,

denser than fluid, is unable to dispel enough fluid to displace equal weight

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15

how does breaking work

• when a force is applied to the brakes of a vehicle, work done by the friction force between the brakes and the wheel reduce the kinetic energy of the vehicle, and the temperature of the brakes increase

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