APUSH: Period 4 (Part 1) IDs

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John Marshall

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61 Terms

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John Marshall

Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (The Marshall Court) who is a federalist (wanted to expand the power of the federal government)

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Judiciary Act of 1801

In the period between Jefferson's election and inauguration, Adams passed the act, which created 16 new federal judge positions, which he quickly tries to fill with federalists

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Midnight Judges

The judges appointed by Adams right before Jefferson assumed his presidency after the creation of the Judiciary Act

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During Jefferson's Presidency

  • Animosity between political parties

  • Jefferson keeps the National Bank and debt repayment

  • Jefferson keeps the neutrality stance

  • Jefferson will lower taxes, end the excise tax, end the Alien and Sedition Act, and shrink the U.S. Army (less debt and small power of federal government)

  • Barbary Pirates

  • Louisiana Purchase

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Pirates from Barbary State

Have been raiding and capturing American ships since the 1780s, but were paid to return the ships. Jefferson refused to pay, and dent the department of the navy and demanded a treaty

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Louisiana Purchase (1803)

While against the Pinckney Treaty, Spain cuts off American access to New Orleans. Jefferson sends diplomats to France to buy New Orleans from France and kick Spain out, but Napoleon agrees to sell all of Louisiana for 15 mil. This is not a classic Jeffersonian move, but it adds voters to the D-R party because of all the farmers moving west

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Marbury v. Madison (1803)

The judges appointed under the Judiciary Act cannot assume there positions until they get their commissions, which William Marbury didn't get in time. The Supreme Court declared that they have no jurisdiciton because the law is unconstitutional. Event established judicial review

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Judicial Review

Ability of the Supreme Court to determine whether or not state and federal laws are constitutional

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Fletcher v. Peck (1810)

A dispute over Georgia land, where the Supreme Court strikes down a Georgia law, expanding Judicial Review (able to strike down state laws)

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10

Dartmouth v. Woodward (1819)

Dartmouth College, a private institution, refused to accept an attempt by New Hampshire to turn the school into a public institution. Daniel Webster (Dartmouth) argued that the state lacked the power to undo the royal contract bestowed on Dartmouth prior to the war. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of Dartmouth, saying that contractual layovers from the colonial period help weight against state laws (federal government > states)

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11

Daniel Webster

Represented Dartmouth College in the case of Dartmouth College v. Woodward

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12

McCullough v. Maryland (1819)

Maryland tries to tax the National Bank, but the bank refuses to pay the tax. The Supreme Court sides with the National Bank, deeming that the National Bank is constitutional (Necessary and Proper Clause) and states have no power to control the federal government

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13

Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)

Ogden has a license to run his ferry line from New York, while Gibbons has a license to run his ferry line from the federal government. The Supreme Court says Gibbons is in the right (Commerce Clause) and the federal government regulates interstate commerce

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Quids

A subset of the D-R party who are more radical and dislike Jefferson because he isn't strongly following his original Jeffersonian ideals (leaning from states' rights to nationalism when dealing with the foreign entanglements)

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Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton

Aaron Burr challenges Alexander Hamilton to a duel, where Hamilton is shot after Hamilton discourages New Yorkers from voting Burr for governor (after being kicked off the ticket for Jefferson's Vice President)

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Embargo of 1807

Jefferson writes that America will stop trading with the entire world, hoping that it will hurt the economies of France and especially Britain and will hault the attack on American ships. Instead, the embargo hurts the American economy and makes Jefferson unpopular (damaging D-R representatives in Congress and giving F party seats in Congress)

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USS Chesapeake

The British Leopard (ship) takes the USS Chesapeake and impresses/kills some of the sailors

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Non-Intercourse Act

This act replaced the Embargo of 1807, and declared that America would start trading with everyone except Britain and France, which were the most prosperous countries, so the American economy was still damaged. The American manufacturing did increase because of this lack of trade

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Macon's Bill No. 2

This act replaced the Non-Intercourse Act, declaring a bargain where if either Britain or France stopped seizing American ships, America would trade with that country and embargo the other (the enemy). Napoleon accepts this offer for France

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20

Market Economy

The shift towards producing goods not only for yourself but producing goods for sale for others

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Causes of the War of 1812

  • Impressment of American sailors

  • British violation of neutral waters (still seizing ships)

  • America wants Canada, which is controlled by Britain

  • British incitement of Native Americans, encouraging tribes to attack Americans

  • Demands of the War Hawks

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22

"War Hawks"

Democratic Republican "feisty" men who want to go to war with Britain after believing Americans have been wronged by the Britains

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John Calhoun

One of the Leaders (alongside Henry Clay) for the "War Hawks"

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24

Henry Clay

One of the leaders (alongside John Calhoun) for the "War Hawks." One of the negotiators for the Treaty of Ghent. Proposed the "American System." Proposed a compromise for the Missouri compromise between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions

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25

William Henry Harrison

American general leading American troops to victory against the Shawnee Tribe in the Battle of Tippecanoe and in the Battle of the Thames

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Tecumseh

Chief of the Shawnee Tribe who tried to unite Indian tribes against the increasing white settlement and expansion into the West

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Battle of Tippecanoe

Between the Shawnee Tribe (Tecumseh), who were backed by Britain (giving them supplies and encouraging the fight), against the Americans. America sends General William Henry Harrison, who leads soldiers to victory

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Stages of the War of 1812

  • Stage 1: Americans invade Canada (fail) and, in retaliation, Britain blockades the Atlantic Coast

  • Stage 2: Battle of Put-In-Bay in the Great Lakes (1813), where Americans can quickly manufacture ships and defeat Britain

  • Stage 3: Battle of the Thames (1813), where Tecumseh is killed (blow for Native Americans) and Americans have greater control over the frontier

  • Stage 4: British troops burned Washington D.C. (1814), and American troops go to Fort McHenry, where British fire on the fort (Americans didn't surrender)

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29

Hartford Convention

Federalists meet to discuss the War of 1812, which they don't agree with because the blockade has damaged the economy, and they believe that the purpose is for Americans to get more land and spread slavery, decreasing their voice in Congress. At the convention, Federalists plan new amendments: end to 3/5 compromise, require 2/3 majority of Congress to declare war, no taxes on exports, no embargos longer than 60 days, one-term presidency, and no successive presidents from the same state. The end to the Federalist party

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30

Clermont

The first steamboat, which crossed from New York to Albany in 1807, showing an example of steam-powered commerce

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31

The Eerie Canal

A man-made canal that linked the Great Lakes with the Hudson River, which launched a canal-building boom

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32

New Business Model for Factories and Finance

Factories gathered workers together and split up tasks, making production much more fast and efficient

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New Technologies in Transportation

  • Better roads

  • Canals: transport was more cheap and efficient

  • Railroads

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34

National Road

A road created that stretched from Maryland to West Virginia

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New Technologies in Communication

  • Telegraph

  • Factories

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36

Telegraph

Allowed merchants to know when to expect shipments and how much they would sell for

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Modern Banking and Investment

Most bank investments were facilitated by business organizations, which meant that investors could make finance ventures without being personally responsible for losses

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New Way to View Work

Before the Market Revolution, work was typically done in the home, however it was shown that it was way more efficient to gather the workers together. In factories, work is regulated by the clock. Factories made it possible for more people to do industrial work, especially women

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39

Price v. Wage

Prior to the Market Revolution, price was linked to products produced. In factories, wage was linked to hours of work

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40

Andrew Jackson and the Battle of New Orleans

Even though the War of 1812 was over after the Treaty of Ghent was signed, the news of Andrew Jackson's victory in the Battle of New Orleans spread before the news of the war being over, making Andrew Jackson seem like a hero

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41

Treaty of Ghent

Negotiated by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay, these delegates established "status quo ante bellum," where Britain and America would go back to life before the war, giving back land and continuing impressment

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42

Nationalism

The persistence of the American soldiers and their act of not surrendering during the firing at Fort McHenry led to an increased sense of pride and patriotism in America. The "Second War of Independence" was where America stood up to Britain with a huge surge of unity and patriotism

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43

American System

Proposed by Henry Clay, he wanted to help strengthen the economy and unify Americans. He proposed a 2nd national bank (1816), the Tariff of 1816, which would protect American manufacturing, and the National Improvements (rejected), which argued that the federal government should pay for infrastructure improvements

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44

Rush-Bagot Treaty in 1817

Between Britain and America, this demilitarizes the Canada-Great Lakes border

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Treaty of 1818

Between Britain and America, this declares that both countries share Oregon

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Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819

Negotiated by John Quincy Adams, this sets a new boundary line between Spain and America, where America gets Florida

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47

Panic of 1819

An economic downturn where the Tariff of 1816 led to decreased national trade and there was increased speculation in the West (risky loans), leading to high unemployment and bank failures

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48

Missouri Compromise

An agreement in 1820 between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories (want equilibrium). Henry Clay compromised that Missouri would be allowed to enter statehood as a slave state, while Maine would enter as a free state, and that slavery would be prohibited in any land above the 36/30 line in the Louisiana Purchase

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49

Tallmadge Amendment

Missouri would enter the nation as a slave state, but slaves couldn't be broguh in the state and there would be a slave emancipation when the enslaved turn 25 years old (rejected)

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50

Monroe Doctrine

Dealing with the Western Hemisphere and created by John Quincy Adams, this doctrine declares that...

  • American continents should not be considered for future colonization by Europe

  • The nations in the Western Hemisphere are different from those in Europe (republics v. monarchies)

  • If Europe does try to impose itself on any country in the Western Hemisphere, America will consider it a threat to its own peace

  • America will not interfere in European affairs

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51

Corrupt Bargain

Alleged deal between John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay to throw the election in Adam's favor. This accusation became the rallying cry for supporters of Andrew Jackson

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52

Lowell Mills

Lowell recreated the powered loom, which helped reorganize and centralize the American manufacturing process. The Waltham-Lowell System led to a textile mill under one roof, shaping the Modern American Factory

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53

Agricultural Technologies

When merchants began experimenting with machines, they relied on theft of British technological knowledge. Examples include powered looms (Lowell), and the yarn-spinning machine and a carding machine (Slater)

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54

Free Labor Ideology

All men could start their careers as humble wage workers but later achieve positions of ownership and stability

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Class Conflict v. Social Mobility in Labor

Employers had financial security and political power, while the employees faced uncertainty and powerlessness in the workforce, even though there was presumable contract of equality between employers and employees, in contrast to owners and workers

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Role of Educaiton for Middle Class / Elite v. Poor

Middle-class children found opportunities for respectable employment through formal education, but poor children remained in marginalized positions. When poor children did recieve education, they often simultaneously indentured as domestic laborers and field workers

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"Romantic Childhood"

Children were sheltered within the home and nurtured through primary school, which was an opportunity available to families who could survive without their child's labor

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Work Spheres for Men/Women and the Differences by Class

The public realm (economic production and political life) for men and the domestic life (private) for women, where women didn't bring money into the household. Middle and Upper classes reinforced status by shielding the women from the harsh realities of wage labor, while Lower class women contributed to the household eocnomy directly

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Changes in Women's Domestic Tasks

As cloth production became normalized (mechanized production), women were relieved of their labor obligations (usually home-based)

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60

Legal Status of Women

Married couples were counted as a single unit represented by the husband (per the notion of coverture), and women couldn't earn their own money or own their own property

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"Institutional" v. "Companionative" Marriage

Institutional marriage was when there were labor arrangments that maximized the chances of survival by assessing skills, while companionative marriage was when people priviledged character and compatibility (land became less important for marriage as wealthy men became bankers and clerks). The change was facilitated by an increasingly complex economy with new ways to store and create wealth

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