G6 NH SAS ELA Vocabulary

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accurate information

details, opinions, and statements that are precise, correct, or true

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inaccurate information

details, opinions, and statements that are not precise, incorrect, or untrue

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affix

an additional element placed at the beginning or end of a root, stem, or word, or in the body of a word, to modify its meaning

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analysis

closely studying a text, interpreting its meanings, and exploring why the author made certain choices

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antonym

a word that has the opposite meaning of another word (bad and good)

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appropriate information

detailts that are relevant or suitable to a given topic

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argument

a summary of the subject or plot of a literary work or play or movie; a brief statement that presents the main points in a concise form

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argumentative article/text/ essay

a genre of writing that requires the student to investigate a topic; collect, generate, and evaluate evidence; and establish a position on the topic in a concise manner

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audience (as in writer's audience)

the target group to whom a writer is speaking through their work

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author's intent

the reason for or intent in writing; it may be to amuse the reader, to persuade the reader, to inform the reader, or to satirize a condition

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author's message

the "big idea(s)" of the text or a part of the text; it is what the author wants the reader to learn or take away from reading the text

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author’s point of view

the author's personal opinion, personal beliefs, and/or personal perspective

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blog

a regularly updated website or web page, typically one run by an individual or small group, that is written in an informal or conversational style

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capitalization

the act of using letters of the alphabet written in upper case, used to designate a proper noun or begin a sentence

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central idea

the focus or topic of a piece of written work

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character's actions

the decisions a person makes in a story based on their qualities and needs

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characters' relationships

the bond and/or connection one person has to other people, places and things in a story

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characters' interaction

the ways in which the characters of a story speak and act with each other

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claim

a statement that persuades, argues, convinces, proves, or provocatively suggests something to a reader who may or may not initially agree with you

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closure

the artistic, rhetorical and ideological means by which a "sense of an ending" is invested in the text; the point at which all posed questions have been answered

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compare/contrast

to note what is similar and different about two or more things

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comparison

a statement noting a similarity or difference about two or more things

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conclude/conclusion

the very end of a piece of writing, and it usually summarizes the main points of an argument or demonstrates an opinion about a topic

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conclusion drawn

a summary of the main points of an argument or a summary opinion about a topic

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concrete/specific/realistic details

facts and examples that support the thesis or topic sentence

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conflict/tension

a literary element that involves a struggle between two opposing forces

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connections/relationships between ideas (transitions in writing)

a word or phrase that connects one idea to another; this connection can occur within a paragraph or between paragraphs. THey are used to show how sentences or paragraphs are related to each other and how they relate to the overall theme of the paper

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contradict

when two statements conflict, or do not agree with one another

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controlling idea/thesis

the main idea that the writer is developing in a composition; it usually expresses a definite opinion or attitude about the topic of the composition

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conventions

the mechanical correctness of the writing and includes five elements: spelling, punctuation, capitalization, grammar/usage, and paragraphing

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credible sources

one that is written by someone who is an expert in their discipline and is free of errors and bias

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describe/description

this is when writing aims to show, not tell, the reader about the subject or experience, often relying on sensory details: what something looks like, what it sounds like, what it feels like, and what it smells or tastes like

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develop ideas (evidence/elaboration)

this is how writers choose to elaborate their main ideas; these specifics help make generalizations (the main idea, claim or thesis) more concrete

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dialogue

any communication between two characters—generally spoken out loud, though there are exceptions to this rule. Dialogue is denoted by quotation marks and dialogue tags

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draft

any process of generating preliminary versions of a written work; it happens at any stage of the writing process as writers generate trial versions of the text they're developing

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edit

a process of making changes to an original text intending to improve it, often to prepare for publication or presentation

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editorial

a newspaper article written by or on behalf of an editor that gives an opinion on a topical issue

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effective beginnings/endings

engaging the reader so that they keep reading by use of a hook, by posing an intriguining question, or by setting a puzzle

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elaborate/elaboration of ideas

to develop or present an idea, event, or theory in detail

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essay

an analytic or interpretative literary composition usually dealing with its subject from a limited or personal point of view

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establish a claim

a statement in which a writer presents an assertion as truthful to substantiate an argument

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evidence

factual information that helps the reader reach a conclusion and form an opinion about something

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example

an illustration (either to be imitated or to avoid imitation)

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excerpt

a passage (as from a book or musical composition) selected, performed, or copied

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explanatory article/text/essay/writing

a type of writing in which the author presents some point of view on a certain topic, event or situation

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flashback

a sequence of events that interrupts a chronological sequence, the front line action or “present” line of the story, to show readers a scene that unfolded in the past

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focus

also referred to as its thesis, theme, controlling idea, main point; this is when writers tell readers what they plan to cover

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global notes

a notepad tool available in the writing section of the NH SAS ELA test. It can be used to take notes, record textual evidence, and organize ideas.

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grammar usage

the structural makeup of written or spoken language and how words are used in sentences

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heading

similar to a title, this is a word, phrase, or sentence at the beginning of a written passage that explains what it's about

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imaginary

existing only in the imagination

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inclusion

the action or state of belonging or of being included within a group or structure

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infer /inference(s)/inference(s) made

the act or process of reaching a conclusion about something from known facts; a conclusion or opinion reached based on known facts

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integrate information/ideas

to blend or merge different pieces of information that's been pulled from different sources into a coherent piece of writing

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interaction

an occasion when two or more people or things communicate with or react to each other

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interpretation

finding the meaning and significance of a story, asking yourself both what the text means and why it is important

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introduction

a beginning section which states the purpose and goals of the following writing; this is generally followed by the body and conclusion

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justify

to prove or show to be just, right, or reasonable

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key detail

character, setting, problem, major events, and resolution—and how they interact

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key event

the most important action that takes place in a story

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logical progression of ideas

the order of things; writing should be organized so that it clarifies and builds on the reader's understanding of the information

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logical sequence of events

a number of events or things that come one after another in a particular order

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mental picture (writing)

an image of something not real or present that is produced by the memory or the imagination

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multi-paragraph

a piece of writing on a specific topic longer than one paragraph, sometimes referred to as an essay

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multiple meanings

when words that take on different meanings in different contexts

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narrative/narrative writing

the telling of related events in a cohesive format that centers around a central theme or idea

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narrator

the fictional construct the author has created to tell the story through. It's the point of view the story is coming from

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observation

an event, description, or pattern that you notice in a text/story

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opinion

a view or judgment formed in the mind about a particular topic or issue

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organize/organization

the arrangement of ideas, incidents, evidence, or details in a perceptible order in a paragraph, essay, or speech

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paraphrase/paraphrasing

a rewording of something written or spoken by someone else

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phrase

a grammatical term referring to a group of words that does not include a subject and verb

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plagiarism/plagiarize/ plagiarizing

the practice of taking someone else's work or ideas and passing them off as one's own

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plot

the structure of interrelated actions, consciously selected and arranged by the author; it involves a considerably higher level of narrative organization than normally occurs in a story or fable

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point of view/viewpoint

the vantage point from which a story is presented

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pre-write

the formulation of ideas and information before writing a first draft

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precise/specific language

the usage of effective language that conveys information not just in a functional way, but also to enlighten the reader

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presentation

to convey information from a speaker to an audience; they are typically demonstrations, introduction, lecture, or speech meant to inform, persuade, inspire, motivate, build goodwill, or present a new idea/product

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punctuation/punctuated

the practice or system of using certain conventional marks or characters in writing or printing in order to separate elements and make the meaning clear, as in ending a sentence or separating clauses

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purpose (e.g., author's or speaker's purpose)

the reason for or intent in writing; it may be to amuse the reader, to persuade the reader, to inform the reader, or to satirize a condition

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purpose for writing (explanatory, argumentative, narrative writing)

the goal or aim of a piece of writing: to express oneself, to provide information, to persuade, or to create a literary work

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quotation/quoting

something that a person says or writes that is repeated or used by someone else in another piece of writing or a speech

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reference/identify sources

the combination of knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary to effectively find, interpret, evaluate, and ethically use primary sources within specific disciplinary contexts, in order to create new knowledge or to revise existing understandings

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relationship

a connection between two people or things

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