biol 66 lab 11

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V(t) = tidal volume

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V(t) = tidal volume

  • volume of air inhaled &/or exhaled at rest

  • "normal breathing pattern"

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VC = vital capacity

  • MAXIMAL volume of air a person can expire after a maximal inspiration

  • "after a normal exhalation, breathe IN as deeply as possible and then exhale as much as possible"

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vital capacity is an indicator of??

  • RESTRICTIVE LUNG DISEASE

  • ex: pulmonary fibrosis where VC is reduced

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FVC = forced vital capacity

  • maximal volume of air a person can expire FORCEFULLY after a MAXIMAL inspiration

  • "after a normal exhalation, breathe IN as deeply as possible & then exhale FORCEFULLY as much as possible"

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FVC can be an indicator of ???

  • RESTRICTIVE LUNG DISEASE

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FEV1 = forced expiratory volume

  • the volume of air that a person can forcibly EXPIRE in ONE second

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FEV1 is an indicator of??

  • obstructive lung disease

  • ex: asthma where passageways are blocked/reduced in diameter

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eupnea

  • normal respiration

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apnea

  • cessation of breathing

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hyperpnea

  • abnormal increase in depth & rate of breathing

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dyspnea

  • difficult or labored breathing

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polypnea

  • increased respiratory rate

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tachypnea

  • excessively rapid respiratory rate

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anoxia

  • total lack of oxygen

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hypercapnia

  • excess CO2 in the blood

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asphyxia

  • lack of oxygen resulting in death

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atelectasis

  • collapse of the alveoli

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dead space

  • respiratory passages where gas exchange does NOT occur

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application question: describe how the diaphragm contributes to lung ventilation.

  • when diaphragm contracts (dome descends), volume of thoracic cavity INCREASES

  • pleura follows as well as lung tissue

  • INCREASES volume of alveoli & REDUCES pressure

  • pressure gradient set up from OUTSIDE to INSIDE

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application question: identify several muscles used in FORCED inhalation.

  • abdominal muscles

  • neck muscles (scalenes & sternocleidomastoid)

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application question: define the term dead space with respect to the respiratory system.

  • includes those portions of the respiratory system that do NOT exchange gases with the blood

  • i.e. trachea & major bronchi

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application question: why were your respiratory volume measurements corrected with the BTPS factor?

  • BTPS (body temperature, atmospheric pressure, saturated w/ water vapor) factor used b/c volumes measured are in the spirometer (at room temperature) & air is DRY

  • in lungs the air is at body temperature & IS saturated with water, thus INCREASING the volume of the air

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application question: distinguish between obstructive & restrictive pulmonary diseases. how does spirometry aid in their diagnosis?

  • obstructive lung disease = result from blockage or narrowing of air passageways (values such as FEV1 allow clinicians to determine whether or not air flow is NORMAL)

  • restrictive lung disease = result in a reduction in functional lung tissue (values such as VITAL CAPACITY & FORCED VITAL CAPACITY) help to determine if an individual has the normal amount of functional lung tissue

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application question: why does the rate of oxygen consumption increase DURING exercise?

  • demands of increased metabolism in tissues, such as muscle, DICTATE

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application question: why does the rate of oxygen consumption remain elevated AFTER exercise?

  • substances such as lactic acid MUST be metabolized & also the INCREASED heat generated by exercise drives up metabolic reactions

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application question: how might HYPERventilation & HYPOventilation affect the pH of the blood?

  • HYPER = drives off CO2 & REDUCE [H+] in the blood ; increases pH

  • HYPO = INCREASES CO2 & drives up [H+] in the blood ; reduces pH

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