# Unit 6: Geometric and Physical Optics

Studied by 5 people
0.0(0)
Get a hint
Hint

Electromagnetic waves

1 / 34

# Earn XP

## Description and Tags

### 35 Terms

1

Electromagnetic waves

Electromagnetic waves are a type of wave that consists of oscillating electric and magnetic fields that travel through space at the speed of light.They are produced by the acceleration of charged particles and include radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, and gamma rays.Electromagnetic waves have a wide range of applications, including communication, medical imaging, and energy production.

New cards
2

Electromagnetic Spectrum

It can be categorized by its frequency. The full range of waves is called the electromagnetic spectrum.

New cards
3

Interference

The phenomenon of superimposition of two or more waves having the same frequency emitted by two coherent sources.

New cards
4

Diffraction

It is defined as the interference or bending of waves around the corners of an obstacle or through an aperture into the region of the geometrical shadow of the obstacle/aperture.

New cards
5

Single-Slit Experiment

A diffraction pattern will also form on the screen if the barrier contains only one slit.

New cards
6

Young’s Double Slit Experiment

The incident light on a barrier that contains two narrow slits, separated by distance d. On the right there is a screen whose distance from barrier L, is much greater than d.

New cards
7

Constructive and Destructive Interference

constructive interference: d sinθ = m λ

destructive interference: d sinθ = (m+1/2) λ

• where, m = 0, 1, 2, 3, etc.

• λ = wavelength of light

• d = distance

New cards
8

Angle of incidence

The angle that the incident beam makes with the normal is called the angle of incidence.

New cards
9

Angle of reflection

The angle that the reflection makes with the normal is called the angle of reflection.

New cards
10

Angle of refraction

The angle that the transmitted beam makes with the normal is called the angle of refraction.

New cards
11

Laws of reflection

The incident, reflection, and transmitted beams of light all lie in the same plane.

The relationship between the incident and reflected ray:

angle of incidence = angle of reflection

New cards
12

Maximum index of refraction

n = c/v

• c = speed of light (3*10^8 m/s)

• v = speed of light in a particular medium

• n = refractive index

New cards
13

Snell’s Law

• n 1 sin θ′1 = n2 sin θ′2 If n2>n1, the beam will bend/refract toward the normal.

• If n2<n1, the beam will bend away from the normal.

• Here, n1 and n2 are the refractive indexes in respective mediums.

New cards
14

Total internal reflection

Total internal reflection occurs when:

• n1> n2 and θ1> θc, where, θc = sin−1 (n2/n1)

• θc is the critical angle.

• n1 and n2 are the refractive indexes in respective mediums.

New cards
15

Mirror

A mirror is an optical device that forms an image by reflecting light.

New cards
16

Plane mirror

• Our image is behind the mirror and stands at an equal distance as we stand before the mirror.

• An image is said to be real if light rays actually focus on the image.

• A real image can be projected onto the screen.

• The images produced by the flat mirror are virtual.

• In a flat mirror, we see an upright image because it's virtual.

• In real images, the image is upside down.

• The image formed by plane mirrors is neither diminished nor enlarged.

New cards
17

Spherical mirror

A spherical mirror is a mirror that’s curved in such a way that its surface forms part of a sphere.

New cards
18

Relationship between focal length and center of curvature

F = R/2 where,

• F = focal length (the focal length of an optical system is a measure of how strongly the system converges or diverges light).

• R = radius of curvature (the radius of curvature is the radius of a hollow sphere of which the mirror/spherical mirror is a part).

New cards
19

Concave mirror

A mirror whose reflective side is caved in toward the center of curvature.

New cards
20

Convex mirror

A mirror whose reflective side curving away from the center of curvature.

New cards
21

Mirror equation

1/so + 1/si =1/ f

• so = object distance

• si = image distance

• f = focal length

New cards
22

Magnification equation

M = hi/ho = -si/so

• M = magnification

• hi = height of the image

• ho = height of the object

• si = image distance

• so = object distance

New cards
23

conclusion on mirrors

New cards
24

Converging lens

Bi-convex lens

New cards
25

Diverging lens

Bi-concave lens

New cards
26

Power of Lens

P = 1/f

• P = power of the lens

• f = focal length of lens

New cards
27

light

Light is a form of energy that travels in a straight line when in one medium (material).The speed of light is 3x108m/9c m/s (or 300,000,000 m/s)

New cards
28

Visible Spectrum

The continues of colors that make up with light.

New cards
29

Geometric optics

Using light rays to determine how light behaves when it strikes an object.

New cards
30

light ray

is a line and arrow representing the direction and straight-line path of light.

New cards
31

Real Image

An image which light actually comes from the image

New cards
32

Virtual image

an image which light does not arrive at or actually come from the image location, light only appears to come from the image

New cards
33

Centre of curvature

The centre of the sphere whose surface was used to make an image

New cards
34

Principal axis

This is a line through the centre of curvature which runs through midpoint of mirror.

New cards
35

Focus

Focus is the point at which lights rays parallel to principal axis converge when reflected.

New cards

## Explore top notes

Note
Studied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
Note
Studied by 32 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
Note
Studied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
Note
Studied by 1177 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(11)
Note
Studied by 46 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
Note
Studied by 30 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
Note
Studied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
Note
Studied by 5163 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(26)

## Explore top flashcards

Flashcard31 terms
Studied by 33 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
Flashcard71 terms
Studied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
Flashcard20 terms
Studied by 67 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
Flashcard192 terms
Studied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
Flashcard24 terms
Studied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
Flashcard29 terms
Studied by 85 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
Flashcard70 terms
Studied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
Flashcard52 terms
Studied by 483 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)