pharm quiz 1

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Drug

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66 Terms

1

Drug

chemical that can affect a living process

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2

Pharmacology

the study of drugs and their interactions with living systems

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3

Clinical pharmacology

study of drugs in humans

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4

Therapeutics

use of drugs to diagnose, prevent, or treat disease/prevent pregnancy

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5

Effectiveness

does it elicit the response for which it is given

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6

Selectivity

causes only the response for which it is given

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7

Reversible action

subside after a certain amount of time

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8

Predictability

how will patient respond

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9

Chemical stability

shelf life

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10

Pharmacokinetics

extend of movement depends on the ability of drugs to pass to and from the major spaces of the body

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11

Absorption

movement of a drug from the site of administration into the blood

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12

Bioavailability

amount of active drug that reaches the systemic circulation from its site of administration

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13

Distribution

movement of drugs throughout the body

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14

Metabolism

enzymatic alteration of drug structure, mainly in the liver by the cytochrome P450 system

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15

Excretion

removal of drugs from the body

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16

Pharmacodynamics

the study of biochemical and physiological actions of drugs and the molecular mechanisms by which those effects are produced

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17

Plasma drug levels

predictive of therapeutic and toxic responses

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18

Minimum effective concentration (MEC)

plasma drug level at which therapeutic effects will occur

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19

Toxic concentration

level at which toxic effects occur

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20

Therapeutic range

falls between the MEC and toxic concentration, depends on the drug

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21

Drug half life

time required for the drug in the body to decrease by half

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22

Plateau

steady level of drug has been achieved (drug eliminated = dose administered)

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23

Peak

highest level of drug

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24

Trough

lowest level of drug

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25

Loading doses

used when plateau must be achieved quickly

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26

Maintenance

smaller doses used when plateau is achieved

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27

Graded response

patient response gets more intense with increased dosing

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28

Max efficacy

largest effect a drug can produce

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29

Potency

amount of drug given to elicit an effect (higher potency = less drug for big response)

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30

Drug receptors

chemical sites in the body at which the drug interacts

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31

Affinity

strength of attraction between a drug and its receptor

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32

Intrinsic activity

ability of a drug to activate a receptor upon binding

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33

Agonists

activate receptors (high affinity/intrinsic activity) and mimic the action of endogenous regulators

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34

Partial agonist

moderate intrinsic activity, less effect than a full agonist

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35

Antagonists

prevent receptor activity (high affinity/NO intrinsic activity) and block the actions of endogenous molecules

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36

Noncompetitive antagonist

bind irreversibly ot receptors, decrease available receptors

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37

Competitive antagonist

receptor blockade by competing with agonists, higher concentration wins if equal affinity

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38

Desensitization

cell becomes less responsive due to continuous exposure to agonist

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39

Hypersensitivity

continuous exposure of cell receptors to antagonist

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40

Therapeutic index

ratio between average effective dose and average lethal dose

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41

Tolerance

decreased responsiveness to a drug as a result of repeated drug administration

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42

Pharmacodynamic tolerance

long term administration, adaptive processes occur

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43

Metabolic tolerance

accelerated drug metabolism caused by drug interactions

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44

Tachyphylaxis

form of tolerance, reduction in drug response is caused by repeated doses within hours

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45

Pharmacogenetics

study of genetically inherited conditions that affect drug interactions

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46

Intensification/potentiative

one drug intensifies the other

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47

Reduction/inhibitory

one drug reduces the other

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48

Side effect

minor effect that is nearly unavoidable (such as nausea)

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49

Toxicity

dosage exceeds the amount the body can eliminate

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50

Anaphylaxis

most serious reaction, medical emergency, systemic that closes airways and causes swelling

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51

Idiosyncratic

abnormal/unusual response

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52

Paradoxical

opposite of intended

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53

Iatrogenic

disease that occurs as result of drugs

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54

Physical dependence

state in which the body has adapted to prolonged exposure so that abstinence syndrome results if discontinued

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55

Carcinogenic

causes cancer

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56

Teratogenic

causes birth defects

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57

Neurotoxicity

brain sensitive to small amounts of substances

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58

Hepatotoxicity

liver is susceptible to toxicants as it is the main site of metabolism

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59

Nephrotoxicity

highly susceptible because high vascularization, usually acute tubular necrosis

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60

Immunotoxicity

immunosuppression or destruction of components

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61

Cardiotoxicity

irregularity of rhythms and conduction, heart damage, depression of function

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62

Ototoxicity

affects cranial nerve VIII, auditory damage on structures of the ear like the cochlea

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63

Levothyroxine

synthetic T

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64

Liothyronine

synthetic T3

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65

Liotrix

synthetic T4 AND T3

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66

Armour thyroid

T4, T3, and iodine

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