Ch 23 Roots, Stems, and Leaves

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Apical Dominance

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Biology

11th

31 Terms

1

Apical Dominance

central stem of the plant is dominant over (i.e., grows more strongly than) other side stems

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2

apical meristem

produces growth of new cells, top of the plant (tissue that makes plants grow longer by adding new cells)

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3

auxins

regulatory substances produced by tips of growing plants that stimulate cell elongation

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4

capillary action

tendency of water to rise in a thin tube

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5

Casparian strip

cell walls meeting and forming a special waterproof zone

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6

cortex

ground tissue in roots that surrounds vascular tissue

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7

epidermis

dermal tissue in young plants consisting of a single layer of cells

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8

ethylene

colorless, flavorless gas that inhibits growth, promotes leaf fall and ripening

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9

fibrous root

branched roots that grow from the base of a stem

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10

gibberellins

plant hormone that regulate developmental processes, such as growing, flowering, etc.

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11

gravitropism

ability of plants to grow in response to gravity, shoots going up, roots going down

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12

ground tissue

makes up the inside of non-woody plants (roots, stems, leaves)

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13

guard cells

highly specialized cells that surround the stomata and control their opening and closing

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14

homeostasis

maintain stability, adjust internally in order to maintain

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15

hormones

chemical changes that affect growth, activity, and development of cells and tissues

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16

meristems

regions of unspecialized cells in which mitosis produces new cells ready for differentiation

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17

mesophyll

area between leaf veins filled with specialized ground tissue

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18

photoperiodism

response of a living organism in changes of day and night

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19

phototropism

ability of plants to bend or grow towards light

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20

primary growth

growth of new cells produced by apical meristem

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21

secondary growth

increase in thickness of stems and roots

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22

sieve tube elements

end walls that have small holes in which nutrients moves through in a water stream

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23

stomata

small openings in the epidermis that allow carbon dioxide, oxygen, water to diffuse out

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24

taproot

large, primary root that smaller roots branch off of

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25

target cells

cells affected by a particular hormone

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26

thigmatropism

movement or change in a plant’s growth orientation in response to touch

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27

tracheid

conductive cell in xylem

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28

transpiration

loss of water through pores

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29

tropisms

turning of one organism is response to an external stimulus

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30

vascular bundles

clusters of xylem and phloem tissue

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31

vascular cylinder

transports water and minerals

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