# Unit 7: Quantum, Atomic, and Nuclear Physics

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## Description and Tags

### 22 Terms

1

Quanta

Light being emitted as individual packets of constant energy called quanta.

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2

Photon

A quantum of electromagnetic energy is known as a photon.

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3

Photoelectric effect

Light behaves like a stream of photons, and this is illustrated by the photoelectric effect.

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4

Photoelectrons

The released electrons are known as photoelectrons.

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5

Wave theory of light predictions:

• The significant time delay between the moment of illumination and the ejection of photoelectrons.

• Increasing the intensity of the light could cause the electrons to leave the metal surface with greater kinetic energy.

• Photoelectrons would be emitted regardless of the frequency of the incident energy, as long as the intensity was high enough.

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6

Atomic Spectra

The light from a glowing gas, passed through a prism to disperse the beam into its component wavelengths, produces patterns of sharp lines called atomic spectra.

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7

The wavelength of photon

Photon’s wavelength:

• λ = wavelength

• c = speed of light

• f = frequency

• h = Planck’s constant (6.626 × 10 -34 joule·s)

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8

De-Broglie Wavelength

De-Broglie wavelength explains matter's wave-like behavior in quantum mechanics.

The equation is λ = h/p, where λ is De-Broglie wavelength, h is Planck's constant, and p is particle momentum.As momentum increases, the wavelength decreases.

This is important for understanding particle behavior at the quantum level.

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9

Wave-Particle Duality

Electromagnetic radiation propagates like a wave but exchanges energy like a particle. This is known as wave-particle duality.

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10

The wave function

The probability that a particle will be measured to be at a particular position when the position is measured. That probability is related to a new physical parameter called the wave function.

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11

Theory of relativity

The results of physical experiments will be the same in any-nonaccelerating reference frames.The speed of light is constant.

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12

Time dilation

Demonstrated by synchronized atomic clocks.

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13

Length Contraction

To be consistent with time dilation, there must also be disagreement about distances. This is known as length contraction.

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14

Isotopes

The nuclei that contain the same number of neutrons are called isotopes.

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15

Mass number

The total number of nucleons (Z+N), is called the mass number, and is denoted by A

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16

Atomic number

The number of protons in a given nucleus is called the atom’s atomic number denoted by Z.

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17

Nuclear force

The strong nuclear force is a fundamental force which binds neutrons and protons together to form nuclei.

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18

Binding energy

It tells us how strongly the nucleus is bound.

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19

Nuclear fusion

It is of small nuclei at extremely high temperatures.

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20

Nuclear fission

The emission of a particle or splitting of the nucleus.

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21

Decays

Alpha, Beta, and Gamma decay:

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22

Disintegration energy

It involves emission or absorption of energy.

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