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Anne Hutchinson

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US History

25 Terms

1

Anne Hutchinson

  • Woman who migrated to the New England settlement -largely separatist puritan religious colony with strict Blue Laws about behavior

  • She ran a bible study that became popular, emphasizing the church's faults, focusing on good works instead of faith toppling the puritan principle of egalitarianism. -She was banished for violation of this and eventually settled in Rhode Island instead. She stands as an example of the little toleration of deviance from the strict religious policy of the New England Colony.

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2

Bacon's Rebellion

Nathaniel Bacon, poor farmer, led a rebellion against William Berkeley’s political agenda and the tight control of a few plantation owners over farming market. Bacon raised an army that conducted raids and massacres on NA villages and fought the governor's forces eventually winning and burning the Jamestown settlement.

After Bacon’s death, the rebellion fell apart and the governor suppressed any and all ideas of rebellion from there on. Called attention to class differences and planted the seeds for colonial resistance against royal control.

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3

Bartolomé de las Casas

European proponent of Native rights and civility who lived among Native tribes in the New World. Owned Native slaves and argued for their fair treatment against Sepulveda.

One of the first Europeans to advocate for the fair treatment of Natives who had thus far been abused, harmed, or demeaned as savages and uncivil because of cultural differences with the Europeans.

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4

British West Indies Colonies

The majority of the british settlers settling in the new world settled off the coast of florida in what they deemed the West indies. Sugar plantations enticed many white settlers to come and perpetuated slave labor as the process for refining sugar was tedious and profit could only be made with their help. Slave codes made lives for slaves nearly unbearable. Greedy rich white sugar plantation owners pushed farmers out of the market and eventually helped establish the carolinas

Pushing farmers out of the market forced them to colonize and settle Carolinas, making a largely diverse religion and economy due to the geographical advantages of the land

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5

Middle Colonies

Pennsylvania, Delaware, New Jersey, New York ethnically mixed colonies with seaport access, geographical advantages for a diverse economy. Colonized mainly by quakers who wanted a haven of religious freedom, tolerance, and equality. They were peaceful with NA tribes and wanted to make money as well. Pennsylvania built with diverse ethnic groups. NY, NJ, DE dominated by class of powerful landholders

Colonies were opportunity for rich to increase wealth or the poor to become rich with a diverse population flocking to these colonies to potentially make money.

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6

New England Colonies

Settled by pilgrims from Britain who were extremist puritans escaping religious persecution against puritans. These people wanted to found a Christian Utopia so they built tight-knit religious communities with strict laws and very equal social and political structures. The New England Colonies didn’t have great geographical advantages for agriculture such as short growing seasons, rocky soil, dense forests, and harsh winters. This made the goods they produced very diverse with things like lumber, rum, and shipbuilding. Education was stressed so that people could learn the word of God for themselves, making the literacy rate impressively high for the time.

The type of community-based society was close to a form of socialism and the political and social structures were some of the most efficient for the time.

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7

Southern Colonies

Carolinas were established as farming colonies as farmers from the West Indies were pushed out of the market by greedy sugar barons. These acted as external plantation colonies bringing the slave system with them to America. Eventually the slave system paved the way to hierarchical society. RICE. The carolinas split between religious dissenters and outcasts and plantation settlements where the north carolina became one of the most democratic of all the colonies. Georgia was founded as a buffer between Spanish Florida and Carolinas and housed debtors from other countries seeking escape or asylum

Trend of people from diverse backgrounds seeking a new start from various reasons

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8

Columbian Exchange

The exchange of goods, diseases, livestock, ideas, and people after European contact with the New World. It brought goods like guns and horses to the New World and brought spices, foods, and slaves to Europe. This exchange altered the biological factors and social structures of the Americas and Europe. As more settlers and explorers arrived from Europe during this exchange with better technology, more tribes were decimated by disease and violence.

Caused the rise of white supremacy as Europeans use Natives as a means to increase their economic output for less money and to increase the number of members of their religion to settle religious disputes with power. Used Natives to strengthen military power and to secure fur trapping techniques, rights, and goods to sell in the New World.

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9

Encomienda system

A system where the land and Natives who were occupying it were granted to wealthy Spanish elites by the king to entice more people to travel to the New World

Introduced Natives to a system of slavery that would have lasting effects until the 1800s. Created systemic European supremacy over Natives and creates a history of violence against Natives.

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10

Iroquois Confederacy

A political alliance of 5 different native tribes that were all based on a hunter/gatherer/farmer system of survival mainly ruled by women. This alliance was very powerful and even more so when it allied with white settlers to avoid additional violence from a large force of white settlers.

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11

Jamestown

The headright system encouraged many second and third sons to find opportunities to strike riches in the New World. The Virginia Stock Company pooled the money of many people like this and used it to travel to and settle in the New World around Virginia. Disease from dirty water took out many and supply ships took a long time to arrive, but no one was willing to take responsibility for anything. Additionally, the Powhattan tribe killed many settlers as the conflict grew. Eventually, tobacco plantations encouraged more people to settle in the New World to make money and the population eventually stabilized.

Founded core principles of the American ideology of equal rights as many who traveled to the new world were second-class citizens hoping to find more opportunities for a better life because of equal rights.

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12

John Rolfe

The first person to plant tobacco in America after stealing it from the Spanish

Led to the tobacco industry booming in Jamestown and more people traveling to the New World to hopefully get rich quickly.

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13

John Winthrop

Led the pilgrims to establish the Massachusetts bay colony based on the principles of puritan separatism and create a Christian utopia. Coined phrase city on a hill when describing the idea the colony would be founded on.

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14

Joint Stock Company

A type of company where people pooled together their money for a shared cause. An example is the Virginia Stock Company whose purpose was traveling and settling in the New World to find more opportunities.

Eventually, the idea evolved into corporations of modern day

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15

Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda

Spanish proponent of the harsh treatment of Natives. Believed they were inferior to the Spanish because they lacked civility and were half people largely because of the the difference in cultures between the Europeans and Natives.

Represented the ideas of what a large population of Europeans believed was sound reasoning for enslaving and forcing integration and conversion on Natives.

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16

King Phillip’s War (Metacom’s War)

The Wampanoag tribe Native to the New England Colony area felt threatened by the amount of european settlers settling near them and attacked after giving warning. The white settlers fought back and war ensued after tensions began to increase exponentially

Many people died due the violence of this war

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17

Mercantilism

The economic theory that trade generates wealth and you need to export more than you import which a govt should support w legislation. This policy was implemented and helped distribute and produce lots of goods and generate lots of profit for those who benefitted greatly from trade and commerce, Colonies were to send raw materials to parent country aka Britain for manufacturing into goods that would then be distributed

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18

Navigation Acts

Instituted by Cromwell, the acts limited only british or colonial ships to export goods or imported goods could only go through British ports and exported goods could only be sent to Britain. Further the limitation of molasses limited rum production in the colonies and limitations on colonial manufacturing limited Americans from making enough money. The restriction on printing of money harmed colonists as well

English shipbuilding became very rich and Chesapeake tobacco gained monopoly in industry and less trade means less potential conflict with foreign forces on the colonies. Manufacturing was limited, low prices limited production, and high prices of goods from England angered colonists

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19

Pope’s Rebellion (Pueblo Revolt)

Spanish Mission System tried to force the conversion and assimilation of NA into Christianity against their will. This caused a bloody revolt by the NA and many Spanish priests and pastors were murdered and symbols of Christianity were taken down or destroyed such as churches

Eventually the Spanish accomodated NA culture out of fear of a deadly revolt again

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20

Powhattan Confederacy

Political, social, and martial alliance of over 30 tribes near the Southern Colonies. Agriculture and trade based economy. Diseases brought by settlers of Jamestown decimated tribes in the confederacy. Wars between the confederacy and settlers killed even more NA members and created the end of their rule. Very complex society with taxes and military force made of different tribes

One of the first tribes to deal with white settlers, foreshadow downfall of NA tribes to white settlers as many are no match for disease, starvation, and the technology of europeans.

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21

Puritans

Religious group that sought to purify the church of england or more extremely separate from the church completely. They were a group with strict religious morals and thus lived by strict laws. Sought to escape persecution in England after the English Civil War and create a perfect Christian community. Led by John Winthrope

Diversity of religions in America would shape principles of melting pot diversity seen in the constitution

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22

Quakers

Religious group that believed in religious freedom, universal egalitarianism, pacficism, and salvation. Were peaceful with NA tribes and led by William Penn to new world to make a haven in colonial america for religious tolerance and to make money

Would lead to founding principles of religious freedom in America

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23

Roger Williams

A puritan residing in the New England Colonies who was banished for questioning the seizing of NA lands and state forced religion

Example of strict enforcement of religious moral code in New England Colonies and eventually moved to Rhode Island w Anne Hutchinson

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24

Transatlantic Trade

Policy of mercantalism encouraged the trading of goods with other countries, in the case of the colonies mainly the movement of slaves, household goods, tools, luxuries, and food items between the colonies,the west indies, Africa, and England

Eventually limited by the navigation acts; created wealth between countries involved, increased demand for cash crops, and increased demand for slave labor as more cheap labor was needed to keep up with demand. This further interaction changed NA communities as more were exposed to disease or were ensalved or both

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25

William Berkeley

Royal governor of Virginia who used dictatorial powers to govern on behalf of large plantation owners, pushing small farmers out of the market after he failed to protect them from NA attack

Eventually led to Bacon’s rebellion over class differences between plantation owners and farmers and colonial resistance to royal control

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