APUSH Test- 11/7/22

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The Significance of the 1912 Election:

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The Significance of the 1912 Election:

reform efforts dominate campaigns and elections Republicans were split but Roosevelt broke away to form (Bull Moose Party) Roosevelt lost but gained the most third party votes ever

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Ways Progressives attempted to expand democracy at the state level.

Suffrage movement

Private ballots

Initiative; bill placed on ballot by the people

Referendum; an initiative voted on by the people

Recall; the people can remove and replace public officials before the end of a term

Direct elections of senators

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The Great Betrayal

(Compromise of 1877) Republican efforts to assure civil rights for the blacks were completely abandoned

If Tilden gave up the election to Rutherford B. Hayes, the Republicans had to remove troops in the South States. They were protecting the full citizenship rights of African Americans

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Pendleton Act

Chester A. Arthur- Federal jobs based on merit examination created a Civil Service and intended to guarantee the rights of all citizens to compete for federal jobs and not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons

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President who served 2 non-consecutive terms and his approach to the Depression of 1893

Grover Cleveland: Democrat (1885-1889) (1893-1897)

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Back and forth politics of the 1880s

The Majority in the Senate changed 3 times and 5 times in the House of Representatives Ruther B Hayes- Republican (1877-1881) James A Garfield- Republican (1881) Chester A. Arthur- Republican (1881-1885) Grover Cleveland- Democrat (1885-1889) (1893-1897) Benjamin Harrison- Republican (1889-1893)

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Important political issues of the 1880s-90s.

Segregation/lynching/Jim Crow laws Progressives only supporting their needs and not engaging in other issues that may cause people to not support them- Progressives ignoring Black issues Political corruption- The Great Betrayal

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The Populist Platform

Active role in Presidential elections 1892-1908 Wants- Collective bargaining, federal regulation of railroad rates, an expansionary monetary policy, Sub Treasury Plan to establish federally controlled warehouses to aid farmers

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The Populist Platform successes and failures

Successes- 1892- Populist candidate James Weaver won 22 electoral votes and 1M popular votes Part failed and disappeared: Failed to get support from city labor groups, political platform adopted by Republicans and Democrats, supported farmers declines when economy got better

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Why farmers struggled in the 1880s

Agricultural overproduction: new machinery and fertile land in the west led to increased supply and lower prices High costs: shipping costs increase from railroads lack of competition Debt: when farmers took bank loans to pay for equipment and fixes they were charged high interest for not being able to pay off debt in the past Lack of Security: not a reliable way to live; weather, insects

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What the Grange was and its goals

The Grange Movement started in 1867 to advance methods of agriculture Goals: To assist farmers with purchasing machinery Build grain elevators Provided a support network for farm families

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Causes of the 1893 depression.

Grover Cleveland ignored the suffering of the people Railroad companies overextended themselves, causing banks to fail

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Coxey's Army

Washington, DC in 1984 unemployed workers marched from ohio to Washington to draw attention to the plight of workers and to ask for goverment relief

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1896 Presidential Campaign

William Bryan and Mckinley McKinley (Republican) won because he had big party bosses behind him The presidential election of 1896 demonstrated a sharp division in society between urban and rural interests.

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Cross of Gold Speech

A speech delivered by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Democratic National Convention in Chicago He opposed the gold standard The speech helped put him on the Democratic presidential nomination

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Rise of the Populist Party

Started in the late 1800s Goals: To strengthen political democracy Federal ownership of railroads Direct election of senators Subtreasury plan

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President Roosevelt's break up of monopolies

Roosevelt told Congress he opposed banning monopolies. Instead, he preferred that the federal government "assume power of supervision and regulation over all corporations doing an interstate business"

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Federal Reserve Bank

Was created by the Federal Reserve Act Provided financial services to the nations payment system, such as distributing cash and coins to banks and clearing checks

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Bob LaFollette

Governor of Wisconsin nicknamed " Fighting Bob" progressive Republican leader

"Wisconsin Idea" was the model for state progressive government. He used the "brain trust", a panel of experts, to help him create effective, efficient government. He was denied the nomination for the Republicans in favor of Theodore Roosevelt.

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Break-up of the Northern Securities Monopoly

case Northern securities vs United States (1902) Broke apart monopolys of multiple RR The Sherman Antitrust act ends it for good

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Segregation in the Progressive Period

"Separate but equal" but it was not because the whites still had superiority to the blacks Lynching: Mob riots against blacks

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Atlanta Compromise

A famous speech given by Booker T Washington about giving blacks the chance to be trusted with fair job opportunities rather than the Jim Crow Laws

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NAACP

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Established by DuBois & Mary W. Ovington interracial organization (black and; white progressives) opposed political/social inequalities towards Black Americans They wanted attainment of equal rights through lawsuits and education

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17th Amendment

The right to vote for senators

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Eugene Debbs

socialist- gaining popularity and strength and dedicated welfare to working class Founder of the socialist party Ran for president 5x but lost every time

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Suffrage Movement and the 19th Amendment

Gave women the right to vote Largest reform movement during the progressive era Women played a huge role in the movements Better organization + more political skill = victories for federal suffrage

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