EQ Learning Goals

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High magnitude earthquakes are (very/not) frequent

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42 Terms

1

High magnitude earthquakes are (very/not) frequent

Not

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2

Which range of earthquake magnitude is most frequent?

1-2

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3

Where do a majority of EQs occur at?

Margin of tectonic plates

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4

What is most commonly measured to detect EQ? What is the instrument called?

Ground motion. Seismograph

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5

Where do the largest EQ typically occur?

Edges where continents meet oceans

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6

Describe oceanic plates (movement speed, age, where formed, where destroyed)

Fast moving (cm/yr), young (<200 million years old), formed at mid-ocean ridges, destroyed at subduction zone

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7

Describe continental plates (movement speed, age, subduction behaviour)

Slow moving (mm-cm/yr), much older than oceanic plates. don't get subducted as more buoyant

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8

List 4 types of plate boundary

Divergent, transform, convergent type 1, convergent type 2

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9

Define divergent boundaries (movement (force induced), type of EQ, location where occur)

Plates move apart (tension), smallish EQ occur, happens at mid-ocean ridge

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10

Define transform boundaries (movement (force induced), type of EQ)

Plates move past each other (shear), moderate to large EQ,

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11

Define convergent type 1 boundaries (movement (force induced), plate behaviour, type of EQ)

Plates move toward and collide (compression), less dense plate subducts at subduction zone, largest EQ occur at subduction zone

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12

Define convergent type 2 boundaries (movement (force induced), plate behaviour, type of EQ)

Plates move toward and collide (compression), both plates same density so they crumple, small to very large EQ

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13

Where do the largest EQs occur?

Collision zones

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14

What type of deformation is EQ?

Brittle deformation

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15

Define fault

Region where rocks have broken over time

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16

List 3 types of faults:

Dip slip, strike slip, oblique

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17

Define dip slip fault

Vertical motion along slanting plate

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18

Define reverse fault

Side leaning towards neighbour moves up

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19

Define normal fault

Side leaning on its neighbour drops down

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20

Define strike-slip faults

Motion is horizontal (coming towards you)

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21

Define oblique faults

Motion that's combination of vertical and horizontal motion

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22

Stress is (released/absorbed) by an earthquake, but at the ends of the zone where faults moved, stress can actually (increase/decrease), (raising/decreasing) the likelihood of earthquakes in those areas

released, increase, raise

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23

What is the magnitude of EQ related to?

Energy released when it occurs

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24

List the 3 conditions impacting energy released during EQ

Area of zone broken, strength of rocks broken, amount of motion

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25

List.3 types of ground motion

permanent, slow plastic, short oscillations

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26

List 2 main classes of seismic waves

Body waves, surface waves

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27

Define body waves

Waves that travel through interior of material

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28

Define surface waves (Where travel, how generated, slower/faster than body waves)

Waves that travel only along surface. Generated when p/s-waves arrive at Earth's surface. Slower than body waves

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29

Define p-waves

Particles move back and forth in line with direction of motion

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30

Define s-waves. They (faster/slower) than p-waves?

Particles move side to side, perpendicular to direction wave travelling. Slower

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31

Define rayleigh waves (Motion, damage caused, how it's felt)

Particles experience backward-rotating motion in line with wave's direction. Cause most damage as largest and most clearly felt since travel along Earth's surface

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32

Define Love waves (motion)

Particles experience side-to-side motion perpendicular to wave's direction, horizontal to Earth's surface

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33

What is the main feature required to determine EQ location

Relative times that p and s=waves arrive

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34

Prevention is more/less cost-effective than prediction

more

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35

What evidence suggests Cascadia has potential for large EQ?

Tectonic setting optimal for large subduction zone EQ, large EQ in tree rings, real-time measurements of tectonic deformation, oral history from natives, tsunami record from Japan

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36

What waves cause the most damage?

Rayleigh and love waves

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37

What scale measure felt intensity?

Mercalli scale

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38

What 5 factors influence intensity:

EQ magnitude, duration of shaking, distance to/depth of epicentre/hypocentre, ground type, building characteristics

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39

4 examples of static methods:

Cross brace, shear wall, shear core, isolation

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40

3 examples of active methods

Dampers (absorb energy), adding mass (change resonance), isolation

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41

Define liquefaction

Saturation then shaking of soft materials causing loss of strength

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42

T/F: EQs kill

F

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