DNA Structure and Analysis

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molecular biology

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Biology

11th

43 Terms

1

molecular biology

studying biology at the molecular level, studies proteins and genes

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2

genes

sections of DNA

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3

second definition of molecular biology

describes the techniques used to understand how genes and proteins work; often involving DNA manipulation

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4

central dogma of molecular biology

describes the normal flow of genetic info

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5

replication

DNA --> DNA

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6

transcription

DNA --> RNA

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7

Translation

RNA --> protein

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8

DNA polymerase

What enzyme is involved in replication?

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9

RNA polymerase

What enzyme is involved in transcription?

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10

occurs at the ribosome

What organelle is involved in translation?

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11

DNA polymerase

copies both strands of DNA

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12

RNA polymerase

copies one strand of DNA --> mRNA (messenger RNA)

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13

mRNA

the code used to make proteins

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14

protein

amino acids joined together in polymers

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15

some viruses can replicate their own DNA, and retroviruses

What are the exceptions to the normal flow of genetic information?

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16

RNA Dependent RNA Polymerase

What is the enzyme involved in viruses replicating their own DNA?

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17

Retrovirus

inserts the virus into the DNA

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18

Reverse Transcriptase

What is the enzyme involved in the exception of a retrovirus?

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19

DNA

a polymer made up of nucleotides

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20

sugar (deoxyribose), phosphate group, and 1 of 4 nitrogeneous bases

3 components of nucleotides

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21

phosphodiester bonds

nucleotides connect on each strand using the phosphate groups

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22

T

A goes with ____ and vice versa

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23

G

C goes with ____ and vice versa

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24

complement, reading the other

The base pairs _______ each other, so you can get one strand by ______________.

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25

recombinant DNA

putting DNA from one organism into a different organism

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26

Have a DNA template (usually as a plasmid)

First Step of Recombinant DNA Technology

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Use restriction enzymes to "cut out" section of DNA you want

Second Step of Recombinant DNA Technology

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28

Use a ligase to join a fragment with a new genome

Last Step of Recombinant DNA Technology

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29

restriction enzyme

breaks phosphodiester bonds

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30

fragments

cut out sections

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31

ligase

brings about the binding and joining of two molecules

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32

precise

Unlike other forms of genetic engineering, CRISPR is super ______.

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33

Guide RNA (gRNA), Cas9 enzyme

What are the two key molecules of CRISPR?

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34

guide RNA

100 nucleotide RNA --> last 20 nucleotides match up with target DNA sequene

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35

cas9 enzyme

cuts DNA at the site that matches with the gRNA

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36

Once Cas9 cuts the DNA, the cell recognizes that it's broken and inserts the new DNA fragment at the cut site.

CRISPR process

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37

Gel Electrophoresis

separates DNA fragments by size

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38

pore size and DNA fragments

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39

running buffer

conducts the electrical current; used to make a fill electrophoresis chamber

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40

TAE

mix of tris, acetic acid, and EDTA

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41

DNA size standard

has fragments of known lengths to be able to compare

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42

used to estimate sample lengths

What is the DNA size standard used for?

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43

power supply

controls the amount of electricity going to the electrophoresis chamber; run at a specific voltage or current based on the gel

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