# AP Physics 1: Ultimate Guide

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What is distance?

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AP Physics 1: Algebra-Based

### 73 Terms

1

What is distance?

Distance is the total length of the path traveled by an object. It is a scalar quantity, meaning it has only magnitude and no direction. It is measured in units such as meters, kilometers, or miles.

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2

What is displacement?

Displacement is the change in position of an object from its initial position to its final position. It is a vector quantity, meaning it has both magnitude and direction. It is measured in units such as meters, kilometers, or miles and is represented by a vector with an arrow pointing from the initial position to the final position.

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3

What are scalar quantities?

Scalar quantities are physical quantities that have only magnitude and no direction. Examples include mass, temperature, time, speed, distance, energy, and power. Scalar quantities are represented by a single number and are usually measured in units such as kilograms, seconds, meters, and joules.

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4

What are vector quantities?

Vector quantities are physical quantities that have both magnitude and direction. Examples include displacement, velocity, acceleration, force, and momentum. Vector quantities are represented by a vector, which is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. Vectors are usually represented graphically as arrows, where the length of the arrow represents the magnitude of the vector and the direction of the arrow represents the direction of the vector.

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5

What is position?

Position is the location of an object relative to a chosen reference point. It is a vector quantity that can be described using distance and direction. Typically, a coordinate system is used to show where an object is located.

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6

What is the difference between speed and velocity?

Speed is a scalar quantity that refers to how fast an object is moving. Velocity is a vector quantity that refers to the rate at which an object changes its position.

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7

What is acceleration?

Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity with respect to time. It is a vector quantity, which means it has both magnitude and direction.

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8

What is uniform acceleration?

Uniform acceleration is when an object's acceleration is constant over time. This means that the object's velocity changes by the same amount in each unit of time.

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9

What is non-uniform acceleration?

Non-uniform acceleration is when an object's acceleration changes over time. This means that the object's velocity changes by different amounts in each unit of time.

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10

What is free fall?

Free fall is a special case of uniform acceleration where an object is falling under the influence of gravity.

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11

What are the BIG FIVE equations of motion?

The BIG FIVE equations of motion are a set of equations that describe the relationship between displacement, velocity, acceleration, and time for an object in uniformly accelerated motion. The equations are:

v_f = v_i + at Δx = v_i t + (1/2)at^2 v_f^2 = v_i^2 + 2aΔx Δx = (1/2)(v_f + v_i)t Δx = vt - (1/2)at^2

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12

What is uniform circular motion?

Uniform circular motion is the motion of an object moving in a circular path at a constant speed. The object's velocity is constantly changing due to the change in direction of its motion.

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13

What is the difference between speed and velocity in uniform circular motion?

Although the speed may be constant, the velocity is not because the direction is always changing meaning that the velocity is always changing.

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14

What is centripetal force?

Centripetal force is the force that acts on an object moving in a circular path, directed towards the center of the circle. It is responsible for keeping the object moving in a circular path.

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15

What is centripetal acceleration?

The centripetal acceleration is what turns the velocity vectors to keep the object traveling in a circle. The magnitude of the centripetal acceleration depends on the object’s speed, v, and the radius of the circular path, r. a꜀ = v^2/r

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16

What is the formula for centripetal force?

The centripetal force required to keep an object moving in a circular path is given by the formula: F = mv^2 / r

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17

What are some examples of uniform circular motion?

Some examples of uniform circular motion include the motion of a car around a circular track, the motion of a satellite orbiting the Earth, and the motion of a ball on a string being swung in a circle.

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18

What is the gravitational force?

The gravitational force is the force of attraction between two masses.

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19

What is the formula for the gravitational force?

The formula for the gravitational force is F = G * (m1 * m2) / r^2, where G is the gravitational constant (6.674 * 10^-11 N * m^2 / kg^2).

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20

What is the electric force?

The electric force is the attractive or repulsive force between two charged objects.

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21

What is the formula for electric force?

The formula for electric force is F = k * (q1 * q2) / r^2, where k is the Coulomb constant (9 * 10^9 N * m^2 / C^2).

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22

What is gravitational acceleration?

Gravitational acceleration is the acceleration experienced by an object due to the force of gravity. It is denoted by the symbol 'g' and is measured in meters per second squared (m/s^2).

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23

What is the formula for gravitational acceleration?

The formula for gravitational acceleration is g = G * M / r^2, where G is the gravitational constant (6.674 * 10^-11 N * m^2 / kg^2), M is the mass of the object causing the gravitational force, and r is the distance between the object and the center of mass of the other object.

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24

What is work?

Work is the transfer of energy that occurs when a force is applied over a distance.

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25

What is the formula for work?

The formula for work is W = Fd, where W is work, F is force, and d is distance.

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26

What is the formula for work when force is applied at an angle?

When the force is done at an angle, the formula becomes W = Fd cos θ.

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27

What is the unit of measurement for work?

Work is measured in joules (J).

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28

What is momentum?

Momentum is the degree of an object's opposition to a modification in motion. It is a vector quantity, indicating it has both size and direction. The momentum formula is p = mv, where p is momentum, m is mass, and v is velocity.

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29

Define impulse.

Impulse is the change in momentum of an object over a given time period. It is the product of the force applied to an object and the time over which the force is applied. The formula for impulse is: J = FΔt, where J is impulse, F is the force applied, and Δt is the time interval over which the force is applied.

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30

What is the law of conservation of linear momentum?

According to the law of conservation of linear momentum, the total momentum of a system of objects remains constant if no external forces act on the system. This means that the sum of the momenta of all the objects in the system before a collision is equal to the sum of the momenta of all the objects after the collision.

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31

What are the three types of collisions?

The three types of collisions are:

Elastic Collisions: In an elastic collision, the total kinetic energy of the system is conserved. Inelastic Collisions: In an inelastic collision, the total kinetic energy of the system is not conserved. Perfectly Inelastic Collision: In a perfectly inelastic collision, the objects stick together and travel in the same direction.

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32

What is simple harmonic motion?

Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) is a type of periodic motion where the restoring force is directly proportional to the displacement from the equilibrium position and is directed towards it. The motion is periodic and repetitive.

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33

What is the relationship between acceleration and displacement in SHM?

The acceleration is directly proportional to the displacement and is always directed towards the equilibrium position.

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34

What is the total mechanical energy of a system undergoing SHM?

The total mechanical energy of a system undergoing SHM is constant and is the sum of kinetic and potential energy. Total energy: E = 1/2 kA^2, Kinetic energy: K = 1/2 mv^2, Potential energy: U = 1/2 kx^2, where k is the spring constant, m is the mass, v is the velocity, and x is the displacement.

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35

What is the force that causes simple harmonic motion?

Since the block is accelerating and decelerating, there must be some force that is making it do so. This cause, the spring exerts a force on the b

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36

Uniform Circular Motion

The motion of an object moving in a circular path at a constant speed. The velocity is constantly changing due to the change in direction of its motion.

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37

Centripetal Force

The force that acts on an object moving in a circular path, directed towards the center of the circle.

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38

Centripetal Acceleration

The acceleration that turns the velocity vectors to keep an object traveling in a circle. It depends on the object’s speed, v, and the radius of the circular path, r. The formula for centripetal acceleration is a = v^2/r.

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39

Formula for Centripetal Force

F = mv^2 / r, where F is the centripetal force, m is the mass of the object, v is the velocity of the object, and r is the radius of the circle.

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40

Examples of Uniform Circular Motion

The motion of a car around a circular track, the motion of a satellite orbiting the Earth, and the motion of a ball on a string being swung in a circle.

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41

Gravitational Force

The force of attraction between two masses. It is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. It is described by Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation: F = G * (m1 * m2) / r^2, where G is the gravitational constant (6.674 * 10^-11 N * m^2 / kg^2).

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42

Electric Force

The attractive or repulsive force between two charged objects. It is proportional to the product of their charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. It is described by Coulomb's Law: F = k * (q1 * q2) / r^2, where k is the Coulomb constant (9 * 10^9 N * m^2 / C^2).

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43

Gravitational Acceleration

The acceleration experienced by an object due to the force of gravity. It is denoted by the symbol 'g' and is measured in meters per second squared (m/s^2). The formula for gravitational acceleration is g = G * M / r^2, where G is the gravitational constant (6.674 * 10^-11 N * m^2 / kg^2), M is the mass of the object causing the gravitational force, and r is the distance between the object and the center of mass of the other object.

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44

Work

The application of force over a distance. It is the transfer of energy that occurs when a force is applied over a distance. Work is a scalar quantity and is measured in units of J (joules). The formula for work is W = Fd, where W is work, F is force, and d is distance.

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45

Formula for Work at an Angle

W = Fd cos θ, where θ is the angle between the force and the direction of m

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46

Velocity formula

v = d/t

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47

Acceleration formula

a = Δv/Δt

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48

Newton's Second Law

F = ma

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49

Gravitational force formula

Fg = G(m1m2)/r^2

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50

Work formula

W = Fdcosθ

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51

Kinetic energy formula

KE = (1/2)mv^2

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52

Potential energy formula

PE = mgh

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53

Total mechanical energy formula

E = KE + PE

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54

Conservation of energy formula

Ei = Ef

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55

Power formula

P = W/t

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56

Impulse formula

J = FΔt

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57

Momentum formula

p = mv

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58

Conservation of momentum formula

pi = pf

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59

Elastic collision formula

m1v1i + m2v2i = m1v1f + m2v2f

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60

Inelastic collision formula

m1v1i + m2v2i = (m1 + m2)vf

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61

Torque formula

τ = rFsinθ

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62

Rotational kinematics formula

θ = (1/2)αt^2 + ωit

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63

Moment of inertia formula

I = ∫r^2dm

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64

Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation formula

F = G(m1m2)/r^2

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65

Coulomb's Law formula

F = k(q1q2)/r^2

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66

Electric field formula

E = F/q

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67

Electric potential energy formula

U = k(q1q2)/r

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68

Capacitance formula

C = Q/V

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69

Ohm's Law formula

V = IR

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70

Resistance formula

R = ρl/A

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71

Kirchhoff's Laws

Σi = 0 and ΣV = 0

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72

Snell's Law formula

n1sinθ1 = n2sinθ2

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73

Index of refraction formula

n = c/v

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