Cognitive Psych Concepts & Studies for Paper 1

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Multi-Store Model

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Multi-Store Model

-Murdock investigated the effect of word order on recall (A). Participants were shown a list of words and immediately asked to recall them (P). Participants remembered more words at the beginning and end of the list (R).

-AND/OR-

-Peterson & Peterson investigated the effect of rehearsal on recall (A). Participants heard trigrams (3 letter combinations) and then had to count backwards at random intervals to prevent rehearsal (P). The longer participants counted backwards, the less trigrams they recalled (R).

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Working Memory Model

-Landry & Bartling investigated the effect of multitasking on memory (A). Participants were shown a string of letters and asked to recall them while they were multitasking or not (P). Multitasking participants recalled less than single tasking participants (R).

-AND/OR-

-Baddeley investigated the length of words on memory (A). Participants were given a list of 1 syllable words and asked to recall them. Then, they were given a list of 5 syllables words and asked to recall them (P). Participants recalled more 1 syllable words on average.

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Schema Theory

-Bransford & Johnson investigated the effect of schema activation on memory (A). Participants listened to a vague passage and then tasked to recall its details. Participants were told the passage was about laundry prior to listening, after listening, or they were not told (P). Those whose laundry schema was activated prior to hearing the passage recalled the highest number of details on average (R).

-AND/OR-

-Anderson & Pichert investigated the effect of schemas on recall of details from a story (A). Participants were instructed to read a story from the perspective of a homebuyer or the perspective of a burglar. Then, they completed a distraction task and read the story for a 2nd time with either the same schema or the opposite (P). Participants who switched schemas for the second reading recalled more details from the story than participants who kept their original schema (R).

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Thinking and Decision Making

-Atler & Oppenheimer investigated the effect of font on accuracy in story problems (A). Participants took a story problem quiz in either a difficult-to-read font or an easy-to-read font (P). Participants who took the quiz in difficult-to-read font scored higher, as they were forced to slow down to read, thereby activating System 2/rational thinking (R).

-AND/OR-

  • Pavkov & Lewis investigated the effect of race on mental illness diagnoses (A). Demographics of patients with mental health diagnoses were analyzed (P). Black patients were found to be disproportionately diagnosed with schizophrenia, indicating systemic racism and bias of health professionals: evidence of the abuse of System 1/automatic thinking when treating black patients (R).

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Reconstructive Memory

-Loftus & Palmer investigated the effect of the wording of a question on estimated speed of a car crash (A). Participants viewed a car crash and were then asked "How fast were the cars going when they ____ together?' Verbs ranged in intensity from "bumped" to "collided" or "smashed." (P). Participants asked the question with more intense verbs estimated faster average speeds, indicating memories can be influenced during the reconstruction process (R).

-AND/OR-

-Vredeveldt investigated the effect of co-witnesses on memory accuracy (A). Data from police interviews when co-witnesses were interviewed together and separately was analyzed (P). Pairs that were interviewed together made less errors than witnesses interviewed in isolation (R).

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Cognitive Bias (Confirmation Bias)

  • Pavkov & Lewis investigated the effect of race on mental illness diagnoses (A). Demographics of patients with mental health diagnoses were analyzed (P). Black patients were found to be disproportionately diagnosed with schizophrenia, indicating systemic racism and bias of health professionals: evidence of the abuse of System 1/automatic thinking and confirmation bias when treating black patients (R).

-AND/OR-

-Vredeveldt investigated the effect of co-witnesses on memory accuracy (A). Data from police interviews when co-witnesses were interviewed together and separately was analyzed (P). Pairs that were interviewed together made less errors than witnesses interviewed in isolation (R).

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The Influence of Emotion on Cognitive Processes (Flashbulb Memories)

-Neisser & Harsh investigated the effect of time on flashbulb memory accuracy (A). Participants recalled hearing about the Challenger disaster 24 hours and 2 ½ years later (P). There were major discrepancies in accuracy between the memories, with a mean score of less than half of the details remaining the same, challenging the claims of flashbulb memory theory (R).

-AND/OR-

-Kvavilashvili investigated the effect of time on flashbulb memory accuracy (A). Participants recalled hearing about the tragedy of 9/11 1-10 days later and 2-3 years later (P). Mean consistency scores were fairly high across the memories, providing evidence for the claims of flashbulb memory theory (R).

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Digitization (HL Only); positive effects of technology

-Blacker investigated the effect of action video games on visual working memory (A). Participants played either action video games or non-action video games for 30 days, then took a visual working memory assessment (P). Visual working memory capacity and precision improved for participants who played the action video games (R).

-AND/OR-

-Gerardi investigated the effect of virtual reality exposure therapy on an Iraq war veterans post traumatic stress symptoms (A). A case study of one veteran's experience of virtual reality exposure therapy (P). His resulting self-report and therapist's assessment both showed a significant decrease in PTSD symptoms (R).

--AND/OR--

-Morina investigated the effect of virtual reality exposure therapy on symptoms of phobias (A). Findings from 14 clinical trials were analyzed (P). Patients' behavioral responses to phobic stimuli improved following virtual reality treatments (R).

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Digitization (HL Only); negative effects of technology

-Sparrow investigated the effect of having access to information later on memory (A). Participants were asked to transcribe a list of facts and were either told they would have access to the file later or they would not have access. Then, they took a recall assessment in which no participants had access to their notes file (P). Those who were told they would have access to the notes file recalled less than those who were told they would not (R).

-AND/OR-

-Mueller & Oppenheimer investigated the effect of note-taking method on comprehension and recall (A). Participants took notes on a lecture either by hand or on a laptop, then took a comprehension and recall assessment (P). Those who took notes by hand scored higher on both comprehension and recall (R).

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Digitization and Emotion (HL Only)

-Gerardi investigated the effect of virtual reality exposure therapy on an Iraq war veterans post traumatic stress symptoms (A). A case study of one veteran's experience of virtual reality exposure therapy (P). His resulting self-report and therapist's assessment both showed a significant decrease in PTSD symptoms (R).

--AND/OR--

-Morina investigated the effect of virtual reality exposure therapy on symptoms of phobias (A). Findings from 14 clinical trials were analyzed (P). Patients' behavioral responses to phobic stimuli improved following virtual reality treatments (R).

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