Unit 3: The Practice of Freedom

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13th Amendment

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23 Terms

1

13th Amendment

Abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except for those convicted of a crime.

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2

14th Amendment

Defined birthright citizenship and overturned the Dred Scott v. Sandford decision.

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3

15th Amendment

Prohibited the federal government from denying citizens the right to vote based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

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4

Freedmen's Bureau

Established in 1865-1872 to assist formerly enslaved people in becoming citizens and provided assistance such as clothing, food, and education.

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5

Sharecropping

A labor system where landowners gave land and equipment to formerly enslaved individuals in exchange for a large share of their crops, preventing economic advancement.

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6

Jim Crow laws

State laws that enforced racial segregation and suppressed Black voting rights through methods such as poll taxes, literacy tests, and grandfather clauses.

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7

Red Summer

Racial violence by white supremacists in 1917 and 1921, contributing to hate crimes and urban race riots.

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8

Double consciousness

The struggle of subordinated groups in an oppressive society, examining the unequal realities of American life.

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9

Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs)

Institutions of higher education created by African Americans due to discrimination and segregation, providing access to education and promoting racial uplift.

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10

Harlem Renaissance

A cultural revolution in the 1920s and 1930s that brought about a flourishing of Black literary, artistic, and intellectual life in the United States.

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11

Black Press

Provided local and national news, documented community life, and served as a vehicle for protesting discrimination.

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12

Great Migration

One of the largest migrations in US history, where African Americans moved from the South to the North, Midwest, and West in search of better opportunities and to escape racial violence.

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13

Black History Education

Efforts to research and disseminate Black history to Black students, challenging the idea that African Americans had no history or culture.

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14

The New Negro Movement

A cultural and political movement that encouraged self-definition, racial pride, and cultural innovation during the nadir of race relations.

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15

The Color Line

A metaphor for racial discrimination and legalized segregation that remained after slavery, leading to social alienation and the struggle for equality.

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16

National Urban League

An interracial organization in 1910 that assisted migrating black Americans from the South to urban areas in the North, providing support in housing and employment.

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17

Afro-Caribbean Migration

The movement of black individuals from the Caribbean to the United States during the 20th century, driven by factors such as the decline of Caribbean economies during WWI and the expansion of US political and economic interests.

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18

Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA)

Led by Marcus Garvey, the UNIA was the largest pan-African movement in Black American history, aiming to unite black people and promote black liberation from colonialism in the African diaspora.

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19

Back to Africa Movement

A movement popularized by Marcus Garvey and the UNIA, advocating for the repatriation of African Americans to Africa and emphasizing the phrase "Africa for the Africans."

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20

Black Star Line

A steamship company founded by Marcus Garvey as part of the UNIA, with the goal of facilitating the repatriation of African Americans to Africa.

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21

Transatlantic Abolitionism

The belief in the abolition of slavery and the fight for freedom, representation, and racial equality, which influenced the sense of belonging to American ideals among African Americans.

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22

Frederick Douglass

A famous abolitionist who advocated for the rights of African Americans, but was not protected from recapture and faced challenges in finding refuge in other nations.

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23

Anti-Emigrationists

Individuals who celebrated independence but believed in the exploitation of others based on race, presenting a contradictory stance on the issue of migration and racial equality.

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