# Unit 4: Electric Circuits

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Electric Current

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### 31 Terms

1

Electric Current

The continuous flow of charge in a circuit, measured in amperes (A).

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2

Average Current

Iavg = change in charge/change in time

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3

Battery

A battery is a device that maintains an electric potential difference between the two terminals.

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4

Voltage

The electric potential difference between two points in a circuit, measured in volts (V).

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5

Ohm’s Law

V = IR

• R is the resistance in the circuit.

• V is the potential difference in the circuit

• I is the electric current

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6

Resistance

It is the impedance to the flow of electricity through a material. Asa charge moves through a material, it eventually hits a non-moving nucleus in the material.

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7

Equivalent Resistance

The resulting resistance when two or more resistors are combined in a circuit.

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8

Resistors in Series

Resistors arranged sequentially in a circuit, resulting in a total resistance equal to the sum of individual resistances.

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9

Resistivity

It can be thought of as the density of nuclei the electrons may strike.

R = ρ l / A

• R = resistance of the circuit

• ρ = resistivity

• l = length

• A = cross-sectional area

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10

low resistivity

conductors

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11

high resistivity

insulators

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12

Resistors in Parallel

Resistors arranged in branches in a circuit, resulting in a total resistance less than the smallest individual resistance.

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13

Ammeter

A device with low resistance used to measure electric current in a circuit.

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14

Power Dissipation

The power dissipated by a circuit component, calculated as the product of current and voltage:P = VI.

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15

Voltmeter

A device used to measure the electric potential difference in a circuit.

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16

Ohm's Law

The relationship between potential difference (V), current (I), and resistance (R) in a circuit:V = IR.

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17

Capacitance

C = QV

• C = refers to the capacitance that we measure in farads

• Q = refers to the equal charge that we measure in coulombs

• V = refers to the voltage that we measure in volts

• Besides, there is another formula that appears like this:

• C = refers to the capacitance

• K = refers to the relative permittivity

• ε0 = refers to the permittivity of free space

• A = refers to the surface area of the plates

• d = refers to the distance between places measured

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18

Capacitors in parallel

Cp = C1 + C2

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19

Capacitors in series

1/Cs = 1/C1 + 1/C2

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20

Name three possible energy sources for a circuit

• Battery

• Photoelectric cell

• Generator

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21

What will happen to the charges in a circuit when a switch is closed?

The charges will flow through the circuit.

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22

What will happen to the charges in a circuit when a switch is open?

The circuit is broken and the charges stop flowing through the circuit.

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23

What is the standard voltage per branch in a home in the United States?

120V

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24

A switch that automatically opens if the current is too high is a ________________

Circuit Breaker

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25

The symbol used to represent resistance in a schematic diagram is

The symbol used to represent resistance in a schematic diagram is

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26

When two light bulbs are connected in series, the

same amount of current always flows through each bulb

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27

When resistors are put in parallel with each other their overall resistance is

smaller than the resistance of any of the resistors

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28

As more lamps are put into a series circuit, the overall current in the circuit

decreases

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29

As more lamps are put into a parallel circuit, the overall current in the circuit

increases

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30

When one light bulb in a parallel circuit containing several light bulbs burns out, the other light bulbs

burn the same as before

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31

Electrical devices in our homes are connected in

parallel

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