AP Psychology Midterm Review

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382 Terms

1

psychology

the scientific study of behavior and mental processes

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empiricism

the view that (a) knowledge comes from experience via the senses, (b) science flourishes through observation and experiment

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structuralism

an early school of psycholgy that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind

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functionalism

a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish

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humanistic psychology

historically signifficant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people; used personalized methods to study personality in hopes of fostering personal growth

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6

nature-nurture issue

the longstanding controversy over the relative contrabutions that genes and experience make to the development or psychological traits and behaviors

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natural selection

the principle that among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributong to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations

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8

levels of analysis

the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon

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9

biopsychosocial approach

an integrated perspective that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis

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10

basic research

pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base

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11

applied research

scientific study that aims to solve practical problems

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12

counseling psychology

a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater wellbeing

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13

clinical psychology

a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders

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psychiatry

a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments(for example, drug) as well as psychological therapies

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15

hindsight bias

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it (also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon)

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critical thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions - rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions

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17

theory

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations

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18

hypothesis

a testable prediction, often implied by a theory

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19

operational definition

a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables

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20

replication

repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances

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21

case study

an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

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22

survey

a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them

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23

false consensus effect

the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors

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population

all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study

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random sample

a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

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26

naturalistic observation

observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation

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27

correlation coefficient

a statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other

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28

scatterplot

a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables

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29

illusory correlation

the perception of a relationship where none exists

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30

experiment

a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process

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31

double-blind procedure

an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or the placebo

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placebo effect

experimental results caused by expectations alone

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33

experimental condition

the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable

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control condition

the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment

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random assignment

assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to different groups

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independent variable

the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied

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dependent variable

the experimental factor that is being measured; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable

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38

mode

the most frequently occurring score in a distribution

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39

mean

the arithmetic average of a distribution

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40

median

the middle score in a distribution

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range

the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution

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42

standard deviation

a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score

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statistical significance

a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance

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44

culture

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

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45

biological psychology

a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior

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46

neuron

a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system

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axon

the extention of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands

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myelin sheath

a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next

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action potential

a neural impulse; a breif electrical charge that travels down an axon

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threshold

the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

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synapse

the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron

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52

neurotransmitters

chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gap between neurons

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53

acetylcholine

a neurotransmitter that, among its functions, triggers muscle contraction

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54

endorphins

"morphine within" - natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure

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55

nervous system

the body's speedy, electrochemical communication system, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems

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56

central nervous system

the brain and spinal cord

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peripheral nervous system

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body

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nerves

neural "cables" containing many axons

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sensory neurons

neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system

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interneurons

central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs

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motor neurons

neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands

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somatic nervous system

the division of the perihperal nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles

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autonomic nervous system

the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs

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64

sympathetic nervous system

the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations

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parasympathetic nervous system

the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy

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reflex

a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus

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neural networks

interconnected neural cells - with experience, networks can learn

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68

lesion

tissue destruction

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69

electroencephalogram (EEG)

an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface - these waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp

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70

CT (computed tomography) scan

a series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body

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PET (positron emission tomography) scan

a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task

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MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue

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73

brainstem

the oldest part and central coe of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; responsible for automatic survival functions

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medulla

the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing

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reticular formation

a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal

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thalamus

the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

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cerebellum

the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance

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limbic system

a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear and agression and drives such as those for food and sex

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amygdala

two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion

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80

hypothalamus

a neural struture lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities, helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion

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81

cerebral cortex

the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center

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82

glial cells

cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons

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83

frontal lobes

the portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; invloved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments

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84

parietal lobes

the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; includes the sensory cortex

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85

occipital lobes

the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field

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86

temporal lobes

the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear

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87

motor cortex

an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements

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88

sensory cortex

the area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body sensations

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89

association areas

areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking

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90

aphasia

impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (imparing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (imparing understanding)

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Broca's area

controls language expression - an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech

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Wernicke's area

controls language reception - a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe

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plasticity

the brain's capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage (especially in children) and in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development

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94

corpus callosum

the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them

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95

split brain

a condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them

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96

endocrine system

the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream

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97

hormones

chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine system, that are produced in one tissue and affect another

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98

adrenal glands

a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys that secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help to arouse the body in times of stress

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99

pituitary gland

the endocrine system's most influential gland - under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands

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chromosomes

threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes

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