Psychology unit 7

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Motivation

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116 Terms

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Motivation

a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior

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Instincts

unlearned patterns of behavior (only explain a small portion of behaviors)

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Drive Reduction Theory

biological needs cause drive that motivate us to maintain homeostasis

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Primary Drives

biological needs that we don't need to learn as a driving factor

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Secondary drives

drives that are learned or acquired through experience, such as the drive to achieve monetary wealth

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arousal theory

everyone has an optimal level of tension that we need to fulfill to feel content

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Yerkes-Dodson Law

We function better under out optimal arousal/stress point, but anything after makes us preform worse (chart my therapist drew)

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Incentive theory

we are driven by rewarding experiences

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Abraham Maslow

Humanistic psychologist known for his "Hierarchy of Needs" and the concept of "self-actualization"

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Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

(level 1) Physiological Needs, (level 2) Safety and Security, (level 3) Relationships, Love and Affection, (level 4) Self Esteem, (level 5) Self Actualization

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self-actualization

the process by which people achieve their full potential

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self-determination theory

a theory of motivation that proposes that every person has 3 psychological needs that motivate us. (Relatedness, Competence, and Autonomy)

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Ryan and Deci

self-determination theory

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overjustification effect

The tendency for someone to loose intrinsic motivation for something when they have been receiving extrinsic motivation

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intrinsic motivation

internal motivation; completing the activity because it pleases you

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extrinsic motivation

a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment

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Ancel Keys

Minnesota Starvation Experiment

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Minnesota Starvation Experiment

this experiment tested the effects of severe hunger on human psychology and physiology by having men loose 25% of their body weight, demonstrating our tendency to focus only on food when hungry, and become irritable and depressed.

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Cannon and Washburn

Theorized that hunger pangs cause hunger which was later disproved because they are only correlated (does not prove causation). (WASHBURN SWALLOWED A BALLOON)

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Hunger pangs

stomach growls/contractions.

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Glucose

blood sugar that causes body to be hungry when low in body

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lateral hypothalamus

stimulates hunger

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ventromedial hypothalamus

Responsible for feelings of Satiation

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Orexin

hunger-triggering hormone secreted by hypothalamus in response to low glucose levels

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Ghrelin

secreted by empty stomach; sends "I'm hungry" signals to the brain

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Leptin

secreted by fat cells; when abundant, causes brain to increase metabolism and decrease hunger

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set point theory

we are naturally predisposed to a certain weight

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Metabolism

How quickly your body burns available energy

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Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)

the rate at which the body burns energy when the organism is resting

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Universal Tastes

sweet, salty, bitter, sour, savory

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Biological Taste Factors

Food that will affect our mood

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Conditioning taste factors

tastes and food preferences influenced by memories

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Culture taste preferences

taste and food preferences influenced by culture

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anorexia nervosa

an eating disorder in which an irrational fear of weight gain leads people to starve themselves

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bulimia nervosa

an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise to prevent weight gain

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Binge-Eating disorder

an eating disorder in which people overeat compulsively

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social motivation

the innate human motivation to interact with other humans

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Sexual Response Cycle

excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution

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William Masters and Virginia Johnson

used direct observation and experimentation to study sexual response cycle (4 stages)

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excitement (sexual response cycle)

Results in genital areas becoming engorged w/ blood, vagina expands/secretes lubricant, breasts/nipples enlarge

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plateau phase (Sexual Response Cycle)

respiration and heart rate continue at an elevated level, genitals secrete fluids in preparation for coitus

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orgasm (Sexual Response Cycle)

Involves muscle contractions & further increase in breathing/pulse/blood pressure rates; men shoot sperm and women's vagina retains sperm/sucks it in

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Resolution/Refractory period

returns to normal functioning as the blood vessels in the genitals release the accumulated blood (women have a much shorter refractory period)

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Emotion

The body's natural response to changes in the environment

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sympathetic nervous system

responsible for natural physiological responses (fight or flight)

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Amygdala

involved in memory and emotion, particularly fear and aggression.

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James-Lange Theory

physiological response first that causes emotion

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Cannon-Bard Theory

physiological response and emotion are simultaneous

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Schachter-Singer Theory

Physiological Response, congnitive survey (conscious surveying of area), then emotion

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Lazaru's Cognitive mediational Theory

cognitive appraisal/survey causes the biological response (physiological and emotion together)

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Facial Feedback Theory

physiological response causes facial expression resulting in emotion

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Paul Ekman

emotion; found that facial expressions are universal

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Personality

an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

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Sigmund Freud (personality)

unconscious, childhood experiences shape our id, ego and super ego.

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Id

unconscious pleasure principle

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Superego

part of the personality that acts as a moral center

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Ego

Regulates the Id and Superego, reality principle

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Denial

refusing to believe or even perceive painful realities

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Repression

keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious

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Rationalization

Creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior.

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Projection

You put your feelings of guilt on stress on someone else. insecure about something, you make every one else that thing.

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Reaction Formation

switching unacceptable impulses into their opposites (crush on someone, bully that person)

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Displacement

when you take out you feeling on someone else

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Regression

an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage

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Identification

when you are insecure about something in your own life, so you copy someone you see as perfect

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Compensation

When you are insecure about something so you do something really well in another area

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Sublimation

healthy outlet for stress

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Carl Jung

neo-Freudian who created concept of Personal vs Collective unconscious

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collective unconscious

deepest part of our subconscious that is inherited/genetic

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Archetypes

common themes and symbols that are inherited from our ancestors in collective unconscious

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Alfred Adler

Neo-Freudian; when we are born we feel inferior to those around us who are older and more experienced and as we grow we strive to overcome our inferiority and try to become superior.

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Inferiority Complex

Someone who does not become superior or more competent as they get older. Affects their daily lives

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Karen Horney

Neo-Freudian; offered feminist critique of Freud's theory (differences between boys and girls was mostly culture, not biology) (Womb envy) (basic Anxiety)

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basic anxiety

anxiety that develops from our relationships with our parents and how they make us feel safe.

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Basic Evil

parental indifference, a lack of warmth and affection in childhood, can lead to compliance, Basic Hostility, or withdraw.

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Compliance

we seek out other people and relationships to help in the big scary world

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Basic Hostility

agression and hostility toward other people which leads to unhealthy or abusive relationships

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Withdrawal

we try to get away from people and don't form any nurturing or protective relationships

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Erik Erikson

stages of psycho social development

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Behaviorists

Personalities are formed through a series of rewards and punishments

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Albert Bandura

Bobo doll experiment and reciprocal Determinism

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reciprocal determinism

personalities develop from interaction with Cognition, enviroment, and behavior

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Julian Rotter

locus of control theory

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Internal Locus of Control

the perception that you control your own fate

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external locus of control

the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate.

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Humanistic Personality Approach

people strive to satisfy a hierarchy of motives toward self-actualization (Maslow)

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Biological Personality Theories

Our personalities are inherited

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Gordon Allport

trait theory of personality; 3 levels of traits: cardinal, central, and secondary

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Cardinal Traits

Traits that are characteristics that direct most of the person's activities (the person's dominant traits that influence all of our behaviors)

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Central Traits

traits that exert a powerful influence on overall impressions (not dominant)

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Secondary Traits

Minor specific part of personality (taste in music or what sports teams you root for)

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Raymond Cattell

used factor analysis to identify 16 core traits

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Factor Analysis

correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables

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Big Five Personality Traits

(OCEAN) Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism

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Openness

willingness to try new things and be open to new experiences

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Conscientiousness

the care a person gives to organization and thoughtfulness of others; dependability

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Extraversion

A personality dimension describing someone who is sociable, gregarious, and assertive

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Agreeableness

how trusting, good-natured, cooperative, and soft-hearted one is

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Neurotic

how negative or cynical some one is.

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Projective Tests

tests designed to reveal inner aspects of individuals' personalities by analysis of their responses to a standard series of ambiguous stimuli

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