Patho Exam 2 Part 1

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What does the circulatory system transport?

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1

What does the circulatory system transport?

oxygen and nutrients

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2

The circulatory system removes _____.

metabolic wastes

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3

The circulatory system is arranged in a _____.

circuit

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4

Arteries and veins have _____ distinct layers.

three

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5

Arteries are _____ than veins.

thicker

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6

Veins have a _____ lumen and valves that arteries.

larger

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7

_____ is a single thickness of endotherlial cells.

capillaries

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8

Capillaries continue to narrow to a diameter only as big as an _____.

rbc

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9

The capillary bed in brain has little space between endothelial cells resulting in the…

blood brain barrier

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10

The capillary bed in kidneys has more space between endothelial cells which allows…

much larger molecules to move between (filter)

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11

What is pulmonary circulation?

moves blood through the lungs and creates a link with the gas exchange function of the respiratory system

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12

Pulmonary circulation is the _____ side of the heart.

right

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13

What parts of the heart is pulmonary circulation?

pulmonary artery, capillaries, and veins

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14

What is systemic circulation?

supplies all the other tissues of the body

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15

Systemic circulation is the _____ side of the heart.

left

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16

What parts of the heart is systemic circulation?

-Aorta and its branches

-Capillaries supplying the brain and peripheral tissues

-Systemic venous system and the vena cava

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17

What is central circulation?

blood that is in the heart and pulmonary circulation

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18

What is peripheral circulation?

blood that is outside the central circulation

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19

What does lymphatic circulation contain?

channels and nodes

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20

Lymphatic circulation starts deep in _____ tissue.

connective

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21

What is lympathic circulation?

reabsorb fluid (lymph) that leaks out of vascular network and returns to general circulation

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22

Lymph is derived from _____.

interstitial fluids (plasma proteins and other osmotically active particles)

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23

Lymphatic system filters the fluid at the lymph nodes and removes…

foreing particles such as bacteria

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24

What is hemodynamics?

principles of circulatory blood flow

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25

What are the pressure principles of flow?

-blood moves to lower pressure (arteries to capillaries)

-greater the pressure difference the faster the blood flow

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26

What are the velocity principles of flow?

longer the distance, the decrease in velocity

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27

What are the laminar/turbulent flow principles of flow?

-laminar is less friction, turbulent is disordered flow

-turbulent flow decreases velocity too

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28

What are the wall tension principles of flow?

affected by wall thickness (arteries less compliant, veins very compliant)

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29

If wall pressure falls, vessels _____.

collapses

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30

_____ decreases as blood flows from arteries to capillaries.

mean pressure

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31

What is laminar blood flow?

-layering of blood components in the center of the bloodstream

-reduces frictional forces and prevents clotting factors from coming in contact with the vessel wall

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32

What is turbulent flow?

-Disordered flow

-The blood moves crosswise and lengthwise in blood vessels.

-Describes the relation between wall tension, transmural pressure, and radius

-States that wall tension becomes greater as the radius increases

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33

Wall tension _____ as the wall becomes thinner.

increases (decreases as the wall becomes thicker)

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34

What is the resistance principle of blood flow?

force that opposes movement of blood

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35

What are determinants of resistance?

vessel length and vessel radius

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36

Shorter vessel length; _____ resistance.

less

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37

Larger vessel radius; _____ less resistance.

larger

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38

Some disease processes alter the _____ of the vessel. (atherosclerosis)

radius

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39

Viscosity of blood _____ resistance.

increases (higher hct leads to higher resistance)

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40

What is total peripheral resistance?

resistance throughout the entire vascular system

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41

Total peripheral resistance is also known as _____.

systemic vascular resistance (SVR)

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42

Conditions that _____ systemic vascular resistance cause more work on the heart.

increase

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43

What is microcirculation?

smallest vessels of vascular and lymphatic system

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44

What is the capillary bed’s role in microcirculation?

to exchange gas and nutrients

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45

Materials exchanged through diffusion move along the _____.

concentration gradient

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46

Materials exchanged through filtration move along the _____.

pressure gradient

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47

What is capillary fluid pressure?

-blood pressure in the capillary \n -force pushing fluid from capillary into interstitum (hydrostatic \n pressure)

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48

What does capillary fluid pressure depend on?

BP, flow, and resistance

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49

What is plasma colloid osmotic pressure?

\n -plasma proteins responsible (albumin) \n -large molecules cannot move out of capillary space \n -number of dissolved molecules determines plasma colloid osmotic pressure

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50

If pathology is an alteration in lymphatic flow then _____ develops.

lymphedema

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51

What is edema?

excess interstitial fluid in the tissue

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52

What are the causes of edema?

-imbalance of any of the factors that control movement of water between the vascular compartment and the tissue spaces \n -disproportionate increase in capillary fluid pressure or \n permeability, decreased capillary colloidal osmotic pressure, or impaired lymph flow

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53

What is vasomotor tone?

contraction of vascular smooth muscle

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54

_____ is alpha receptors.

vasoconstriction

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55

_____ is beta adrenergic receptors.

vasodilation

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56

What are veins?

skeletal muscle activity activates venous pump \n forcing blood back to heart

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57

What is autoregulation?

ability of blood vessels in organs to maintain constant flow

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58

Lymph flow is enhanced by:

increased activity, increased BP, and increased RR

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59

What is arterial blood pressure?

the pressure differences between the left and right \n sides of the heart that produce the gradient allowing \n systemic movement of blood

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60

What is arterial blood pressure produced by?

the force of left ventricular contraction overcoming the resistance of the aorta to open the aortic valve

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61

Arterial diameter affects arterial resistance therefore _____.

blood pressure

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62

_____ = CO x SVR

blood pressure

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63

Alteration of cardiac output and SVR alters _____.

blood pressure

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64

What is systolic?

peak pressure in aorta during ventricular contraction

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65

What is diastolic?

pressure during ventricular diastole

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66

What is the difference between systolic and diastolic called?

pulse pressure

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67

What is mean arterial pressure (MAP)?

calculated average pressure within the circulatory system throughout the cardiac cycle

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68

What is the formula for mean arterial pressure?

(2x diastolic) + systolic /3

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69

What is the direct measurement of blood pressure?

arterial line; waveforms

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70

What is the indirect measurement of blood pressure?

BP cuff measurements (cuff size affects and should be the same in both arms unless condition present)

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71

What are some things that affect BP?

stress, HR, activity, and position

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72

What is the systolic blood pressure?

peak pressure during cardiac systole

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73

What is diastolic blood pressure?

lowest pressure during cardiac diastole

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74

_____ is the primary factor influencing systolic pressure.

stroke volume

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75

_____ is the major determinant of diastolic pressure.

systemic vascular resistance

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76

What is the pulse pressure formula?

systolic - diastolic

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77

What is the sympathetic nervous system?

baroreceptor reflex and vasomotor center in medulla

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78

Vasomotor center is activated by:

fever or stressors

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79

Parasympathetic nervous system _____ HR.

slow

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80

What is the primary function of the heart?

-pump blood through circulatory system \n -distributes oxygenated blood and nutrients to tissues

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81

What is oxygen rich blood?

enters the heart from the lungs and goes out to the body

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82

What is oxygen poor blood?

enters the heart from the body and goes out to the lungs

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83

What is cardiac output (CO)?

amount of blood pumped out of the heart each minute

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84

What is the cardiac output formula?

CO = HR x SV

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85

What is stroke volume (SV)?

amount of blood ejected from the ventricle with each \n contraction

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86

What is preload?

volume of blood in heart

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87

What is contractility?

contractile capability of the heart

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88

What is afterload?

impedance/resistance opposing ejection of blood from ventricle

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89

What is ejection fraction?

influenced by preload, contractility, and afterload

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90

What is the SA node?

pacemaker of the heart (60-100)

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91

What is the AV node?

back up if SA node fails (40-60)

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92

What is the echocardiography?

reflected sound waves (US) provides image of structure and motion

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93

What is the nuclear cardiography?

radioactive tracing of blood flow patterns

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94

What is cardiac catheterization?

structural and hemodynamic characteristics (direct measurement of pressures, visualization)

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95

What does reduction in blood flow impair?

ability to transport oxygen, nutrients (arterial) or to return flow to remove metabolic waste (venous)​

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96

What is a thrombus?

a clot

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97

What is an embolus?

a clot that is on the move and we don’t know where it is going to lodge

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98

What does a thrombus obstruct flow of?

arterial and venous flow

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99

What does a embolus obstruct flow of?

arterial and venous flow

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100

What does a vasospasm obstruct flow of?

arterial flow

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