General Botany Lecture

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The scientific study of plants.

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The scientific study of plants.

Botany

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An organism with a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.

Eukaryote

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Composed of more than one cell.

Multicellular

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The cell wall of plants that contains the polysaccharide cellulose.

Cellulosic Cell Wall

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Organisms that can produce their own food through photosynthesis.

Autotroph

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The process by which plants capture light energy of sunlight and use carbon dioxide and water to make their own food (glucose).

Photosynthesis

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Fluid-filled sacs for storage of water and nutrients needed by the cell.

Vacuoles

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Organelle in plant cells that contains chlorophyll and is responsible for photosynthesis.

Chloroplast

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Generally non-motile, but can exhibit limited movement.

Sedentary

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The study of the form and structures of plants.

Plant Morpho-Anatomy

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The study of the structures and functions of important biological molecules in plants.

Plant Molecular Biology

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The study of the structures, functions, and life processes of plant cells.

Plant Cell Biology

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The study of how plants function, including processes like photosynthesis and mineral nutrition.

Plant Physiology

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The study of plant heredity and variation.

Plant Genetics

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The study of the interrelationships among plants and between plants and their environment.

Plant Ecology

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The study of diseases in plants.

Plant Pathology

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The study of plant taxonomy and phylogeny.

Plant Systematics

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The study of algae.

Phycology

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The study of fungi.

Mycology

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The study of ferns.

Pteridology

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The study of mosses.

Bryology

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The study of trees.

Dendrology

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The basic structural and functional unit of every organism.

Cell

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Proteins, amino acids, lipids, carbohydrates, sugars, nucleotides, DNA, and RNA found in all cells.

Molecular Components

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Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and ribosomes found in all cells.

Structural Components

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The process by which cells extract energy and nutrients from the environment and use them to build, repair, and replace cellular parts.

Metabolism

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British scientist who coined the word "cell" and observed cells in thin slices of cork.

Robert Hooke

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Dutch tradesman and scientist who observed single-celled organisms and microorganisms using handcrafted microscopes.

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

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The theory proposed by Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann that states that cells are the basic units of life and all living organisms are composed of one or more cells.

Cell Theory

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Cells that have a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.

Eukaryotic Cells

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The outermost component of a cell that encloses the cytoplasm and regulates the exchange of substances between the cell and its environment.

Plasma Membrane

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The most distinct organelle in a eukaryotic cell that contains most of the genes.

Nucleus

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The double membrane that encloses the nucleus and allows selective exchange of materials.

Nuclear Envelope/Membrane

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Nuclear Pores

Tiny membrane-lined channels in the nuclear envelope that allow the exchange of materials between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.

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The material within the nucleus that consists of DNA organized into discrete units called chromosomes. It is a complex of proteins and DNA.

Chromatin

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The region of the cell that consists of all materials inside the plasma membrane and outside the nucleus. It contains a semifluid, jelly-like substance called cytosol and is the most active region of the cell where metabolic activities occur.

Cytoplasm

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Spherical bodies that may be attached to the endoplasmic reticulum or free in the cytoplasm. They are aggregates of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and protein and function as the site of protein synthesis in the cell.

Ribosomes

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Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

A network of membranous tubules and sacs within the cytoplasm.

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smooth ER

involved in lipid synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, detoxification, and calcium storage

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rough ER

synthesize both secretory proteins and phospholipids

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Membrane-bound vesicles of flattened sacs and stacks that receive proteins and lipids from the ER and sort them according to their destinations. It also modifies molecules and acts as the "shipping and receiving center" of the cell.

Golgi Apparatus

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A cisterna of the Golgi apparatus that faces the rough ER.

Entry or Cis Face

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A cisterna of the Golgi apparatus that faces the plasma membrane.

Exit or Trans Face

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Sacs between the entry and exit faces of the Golgi apparatus.

Medial Cisternae

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Small membrane-bound sacs that transport materials within the cell or to the plasma membrane for export.1. Golgi apparatus:An organelle in the cell that processes, sorts, and modifies proteins and lipids.

Vesicles

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Vesicles that contain digestive enzymes and break down waste materials and cellular debris.

Lysosomes

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A network of membranes in the cell that includes the nuclear membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, and plasma membrane.

Endomembrane system

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Small vesicles that contain enzymes for breaking down fatty acids, amino acids, and hydrogen peroxide.

Peroxisomes

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by-product of fatty acid and amino acid breakdown and can be toxic to a cell. 

Hydrogen peroxide

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Double-membrane organelles that are the site of cellular respiration and ATP synthesis.

Mitochondria

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The outer membrane is smooth, but the inner membrane forms deep folds called

Cristae

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  •  Site of cellular aerobic respiration (convert energy stored in sugar to ATP)

  • major site of ATP synthesis

  • “powerhouse of the cell”

  • found in large number of metabolically active cells

Functions of Mitochondria

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A network of protein fibers that provide support, shape, and motility to the cell.

Cytoskeleton

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Thin protein fibers involved in cell shape, motility, and division.

Microfilaments

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Medium-sized protein fibers that provide mechanical support and maintain cell shape.

Intermediate filaments

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Hollow structures formed from protein subunits involved in cell motility, chromosome movements, and organelle movements.

Microtubules

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An extracellular structure found in plant cells that provides support and protection.

Cell wall

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Cellulose

The main component of plant cell walls, a tough and insoluble polysaccharide.

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Hemicellulose

A kind of polysaccharide that binds together cellulose microfibrils and produces a solid structure.

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Found in the secondary wall of plant cell walls, it resists chemical, fungal, and bacterial attack.

Lignin

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A sticky polysaccharide composing the middle lamella layer, responsible for gluing adjacent plant cells together.

Pectin

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The relatively thin and flexible wall of a cell, composed mainly of cellulose.

Primary Wall

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Located between the plasma membrane and the primary wall, it is thicker and stronger than the primary wall due to the presence of lignin.

Secondary Wall

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A thin layer rich in pectins, located between the primary walls of adjacent cells, responsible for the organized arrangement of plant cells.

Middle Lamella

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Channels or fine holes perforating the cell walls between adjacent cells, allowing for the passage of water, solutes, proteins, and RNA molecules.

Plasmodesmata

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Developed by the coalescence of smaller vacuoles, it serves as a storage site for nutrient reserves, waste products, and inorganic ions.

Central Vacuole

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the solution inside the central vacuole, differs in composition from the cytosol

Cell Sap

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A membrane-bound organelle found in plant cells that stores water, nutrients, and waste materials

Vacuole

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The process by which cells increase in size and number

Cell growth

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The gel-like substance inside a cell, excluding the nucleus

Cytoplasm

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The outer boundary of a cell that regulates the movement of substances in and out of the cell

Plasma membrane

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The process of breaking down cellular components using enzymes

Cellular digestion

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The membrane surrounding the central vacuole in plant cells

Tonoplast

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Enzymes that break down molecules into smaller components for absorption or elimination

Digestive enzymes

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Molecules that absorb certain wavelengths of light and give color to cells or tissues

Pigments

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A group of organelles in plant cells that perform various functions

Plastids

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  • synthesis, storage, and export of specialized lipid molecules

  • storage of carbohydrates and iron

  • formation of colors in some flowers and fruits

Functions of Plastids

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The inner fluid of plastids

Stroma

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A type of plastid responsible for photosynthesis in plants

Chloroplast

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The process by which plants convert sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water into glucose and oxygen

Photosynthesis

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Stacks of disc-like structures in chloroplasts where photosynthesis takes place

Grana

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Each individual disc in the grana of chloroplasts

Thylakoid

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Cellular structures responsible for protein synthesis

Ribosomes

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The main pigment in chloroplasts that captures light energy for photosynthesis

Chlorophyll

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Chromoplast

A plastid that contains colored pigments and is responsible for the coloration of flowers and fruits

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Amyloplast

Plastids found in plant tissues that cannot photosynthesize

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Membrane-bound organelles in animal cells that contain digestive enzymes

Lysosomes

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Cylindrical structures involved in cell division in animal cells

Centrioles

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Long, whip-like structures used for cell movement in some animal cells

Flagella

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Hair-like structures that extend from the surface of some animal cells and are involved in movement or sensing

Cilia

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The outer boundary of a cell that regulates the movement of substances in and out of the cell

Cell membrane

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A rigid structure outside the cell membrane that provides support and protection in plant cells

Cell wall

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The double membrane that surrounds the nucleus of a cell

Nuclear membrane

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Organelles responsible for energy production in cells1. Endoplasmic Reticulum:A network of membranes within the cell that is involved in the synthesis, modification, and transport of proteins and lipids.

Mitochondria

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Organelles found only in animal cells that contain enzymes responsible for breaking down waste materials and cellular debris.

Lysosomes

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Organelles involved in the breakdown of fatty acids and the detoxification of harmful substances in the cell.

Peroxisomes

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A stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and lipids for transport to their final destinations.

Golgi Apparatus

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The process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.

Diffusion

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The outer boundary of the cell that regulates the exchange of substances between the cell and its environment.

Plasma Membrane

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Allowing some substances to cross the membrane more easily than others.

Selectively Permeable

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