Ap Psychology Reew

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394 Terms
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ablation

removal or destruction of brain tissue in a surgical procedure

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absolute threshold

intensity level at which one can detect a stimulus 50% of the time

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accommodation

the process of modifying a schema to account for new information; the process of the eyes lens changing shape in order to focus on distant or near objects

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acetylcholine (ACh)

a neurotransmitter involved in learning

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need for achievement

desire for accomplishment

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achievement test

a test that assesses what one has learned

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acquisition

a process in classical conditioning by which the association of a neutral stimulus with a natural stimulus is first established

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action potential

the electrical process by which information is transmitted the length of an axon

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activation synthesis

the idea that dreams are the result of the cerebral cortex interpreting and organizing random flashes of brain activity

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adrenal gland

source of the hormone norepinephrine which affects arousal

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affective disorders

psychological disturbances of mood

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need for affiliation

desire to associate with others

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after image

an image that remains after a stimulus is removed

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agonists

drugs which mimic the activity of neurotransmitters

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alcohol

the most frequently used and abused CNS depressant in most cultures; its use affects mood

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all-or-nothing

description of the action of neurons when firing

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alpha waves

seen when an individual is in a relaxed

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amygdala

limbic system component associated with emotion

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anal stage

Freud's pychosexual period during which a child learns to control his bodily excretions

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anorexia (nervosa)

an eating disorder in which one starves oneself even though significantly underweight

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antagonist

drug which blocks the activity of neurotransmitters

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anterograde amnesia

loss of memory for events that occur after the onset of the amnesia; eg

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retrograde amnesia

loss of memory for events that occurred before the onset of amnesia; eg a soldier's forgetting events immediately before a shell burst nearby

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antisocial personality disorder

psychological disorder in which one demonstrates a lack of conscience

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anvil

the middle of the three ossicles

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aphasia

impairment of language usually caused by damage to the left hemisphere

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arousal

condition in which the sympathetic nervous system is in control

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artificial intelligence

a subdiscipline of computer science that attempts to simulate human thinking

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assimilation

interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schema

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association areas

areas of the cerebral cortex which have no specific motor or sensory repsonsibilities

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associative learning

learning in which an organism learns that certain events occur together

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attachment

theory developed by Harlow; types include secure and insecure

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attitude

a relatively enduring evaluation of a person or thing; Asch demonstrated that this doesn't always match one's behavior

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attraction

feeling of being drawn toward another and desiring the company of a person

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attribution theory

a way of explaining others' behavior by either one's disposition or one's situation

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auditory canal

the area that sound waves pass through to reach the eardrum

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authoritarian

style of parenting in which the parent creates strict rules for the child and the child has little or no input into determining the rules

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autonomic nervous system

division of the nervous system that control the glands and organs; its divisions arouse or calm

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autonomy vs. shame and doubt

Erikson's stage in which a toddler learns to exercise will and to do things independently; failure to do so causes shame and doubt

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availability heuristic

this cognitive shortcut features the idea that events which are vividly in memory seem to be more common

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axon

extension of the neuron which carries

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babbling

stage of language development at about 4 months when an infant spontaneously utters nonsense sounds

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basic research

scientific investigations intended to expand the knowledge base

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applied research

scientific investigations intended to solve practical problems

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behavioral

perspective on psychology that sees psychology as an objective science without reference to mental states

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belief perseverance

situation in which one's beliefs continue despite the fact that the ground for the beliefs have been discredited

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big 5 personality factors

openness to new experience

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binocular cues

retinal disparity and convergence which enable people to determine depth using both eyes

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biological

perspective that stresses links between biology and behavior

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bipolar cells

eye neurons that receive information from the retinal cells and distribute information to the ganglion cells

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bipolar disorder

mood disorder in one experiences both manic and depressed episodes

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blind spot

point in the retinal where the optic nerve leaves the retina so there are no rods or cones there

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bottom-up processing

analysis that begins with sensory receptors and works its way up to the brain's integration of sensory information

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hemispheres

we have two

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brainstem

oldest part of the brain

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bulimia

eating disorder characterized by excessive eating followed by purging

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bystander effect

the tendency to not offer help when needed if others are present who do not offer help

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Cannon-Baird

theory of emotion that says that a stimulus causes simultaneously psyiological arousal and the subjective experience of an emotion

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case study

scientific investigation in which a single subject is studied in great detail

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CAT scan

a method of creating static images of the brain through computerized axial tomography

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catatonic

a form of schizophrenia in which the patient has muscle immobility and does not move

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catharsis

release of aggressive energy through activity or fantasy

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Central Nervous System

consists of the brain and the spinal cord

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cerebellum

brain structure that controls well-learned motor activities like riding a bike

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cerebral cortex

the fabric of interconnecting cells that blankets the brain hemispheres; the brain's center for information processing and control

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chaining

using operant conditioning to teach a complex response by linking together less complex skills

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chunking

organizing units of information into manageable units such as memorizing a phone number as three groups of information 248-555-1212

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circadian rhythm

the daily biological rhythms that occur in a 24-hour period

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classical conditioning

method of learning in which a neutral stimulus can be used to elicit a response that is usually a natural response to a stimulus

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client-centered therapy

developed by Carl Rogers

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clinical

this type of psychologist studies

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cochlea

this coiled structure in the inner ear is fluid-filled and in it the energy from sound waves stimulate hair cells

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cognitive dissonance theory

this says that we will suffer discomfort and act to change the situation when our thoughts and actions seem to be inconsistent

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cognitive

perspective on psychology that stresses the importance of mental activities associated with thinking

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cognitive therapy

treatment for psychological disorders that centers on changing self-defeating thinking

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collective unconscious

Jung's theory that we all share an inherited memory that contains our culture's most basic elements

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color blindness

a variety of disorders marked by inability to distinguish some or all colors

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collectivist

this adjective describes cultures in which the individual is less important than the group

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concrete operations

Piaget's stage in which children learn such concepts as conservation and mathematical transformations; about 7 - 11 years of age

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concurrent validity

the extent to which two measures of the same trait or ability agree

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conditioned response

in classical conditioning

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conditioning

generally

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conduction

one type of hearing impairment caused by mechanical problems in the ear structures

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cones

neurons in the retina that are responsible for color vision

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