Ap Psychology Reew

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394 Terms

1

ablation

removal or destruction of brain tissue in a surgical procedure

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2

absolute threshold

intensity level at which one can detect a stimulus 50% of the time

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3

accommodation

the process of modifying a schema to account for new information; the process of the eyes lens changing shape in order to focus on distant or near objects

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4

acetylcholine (ACh)

a neurotransmitter involved in learning

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5

need for achievement

desire for accomplishment

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6

achievement test

a test that assesses what one has learned

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7

acquisition

a process in classical conditioning by which the association of a neutral stimulus with a natural stimulus is first established

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8

action potential

the electrical process by which information is transmitted the length of an axon

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9

activation synthesis

the idea that dreams are the result of the cerebral cortex interpreting and organizing random flashes of brain activity

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10

adrenal gland

source of the hormone norepinephrine which affects arousal

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11

affective disorders

psychological disturbances of mood

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12

need for affiliation

desire to associate with others

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13

after image

an image that remains after a stimulus is removed

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14

agonists

drugs which mimic the activity of neurotransmitters

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15

alcohol

the most frequently used and abused CNS depressant in most cultures; its use affects mood

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16

all-or-nothing

description of the action of neurons when firing

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17

alpha waves

seen when an individual is in a relaxed

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18

amygdala

limbic system component associated with emotion

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19

anal stage

Freud's pychosexual period during which a child learns to control his bodily excretions

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20

anorexia (nervosa)

an eating disorder in which one starves oneself even though significantly underweight

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21

antagonist

drug which blocks the activity of neurotransmitters

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22

anterograde amnesia

loss of memory for events that occur after the onset of the amnesia; eg

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23

retrograde amnesia

loss of memory for events that occurred before the onset of amnesia; eg a soldier's forgetting events immediately before a shell burst nearby

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24

antisocial personality disorder

psychological disorder in which one demonstrates a lack of conscience

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25

anvil

the middle of the three ossicles

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26

aphasia

impairment of language usually caused by damage to the left hemisphere

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27

arousal

condition in which the sympathetic nervous system is in control

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28

artificial intelligence

a subdiscipline of computer science that attempts to simulate human thinking

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29

assimilation

interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schema

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30

association areas

areas of the cerebral cortex which have no specific motor or sensory repsonsibilities

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31

associative learning

learning in which an organism learns that certain events occur together

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32

attachment

theory developed by Harlow; types include secure and insecure

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33

attitude

a relatively enduring evaluation of a person or thing; Asch demonstrated that this doesn't always match one's behavior

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34

attraction

feeling of being drawn toward another and desiring the company of a person

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35

attribution theory

a way of explaining others' behavior by either one's disposition or one's situation

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36

auditory canal

the area that sound waves pass through to reach the eardrum

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37

authoritarian

style of parenting in which the parent creates strict rules for the child and the child has little or no input into determining the rules

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38

autonomic nervous system

division of the nervous system that control the glands and organs; its divisions arouse or calm

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39

autonomy vs. shame and doubt

Erikson's stage in which a toddler learns to exercise will and to do things independently; failure to do so causes shame and doubt

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40

availability heuristic

this cognitive shortcut features the idea that events which are vividly in memory seem to be more common

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41

axon

extension of the neuron which carries

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42

babbling

stage of language development at about 4 months when an infant spontaneously utters nonsense sounds

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43

basic research

scientific investigations intended to expand the knowledge base

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44

applied research

scientific investigations intended to solve practical problems

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45

behavioral

perspective on psychology that sees psychology as an objective science without reference to mental states

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46

belief perseverance

situation in which one's beliefs continue despite the fact that the ground for the beliefs have been discredited

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47

big 5 personality factors

openness to new experience

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48

binocular cues

retinal disparity and convergence which enable people to determine depth using both eyes

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49

biological

perspective that stresses links between biology and behavior

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50

bipolar cells

eye neurons that receive information from the retinal cells and distribute information to the ganglion cells

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51

bipolar disorder

mood disorder in one experiences both manic and depressed episodes

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52

blind spot

point in the retinal where the optic nerve leaves the retina so there are no rods or cones there

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53

bottom-up processing

analysis that begins with sensory receptors and works its way up to the brain's integration of sensory information

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54

hemispheres

we have two

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55

brainstem

oldest part of the brain

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56

bulimia

eating disorder characterized by excessive eating followed by purging

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57

bystander effect

the tendency to not offer help when needed if others are present who do not offer help

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58

Cannon-Baird

theory of emotion that says that a stimulus causes simultaneously psyiological arousal and the subjective experience of an emotion

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59

case study

scientific investigation in which a single subject is studied in great detail

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60

CAT scan

a method of creating static images of the brain through computerized axial tomography

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61

catatonic

a form of schizophrenia in which the patient has muscle immobility and does not move

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62

catharsis

release of aggressive energy through activity or fantasy

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63

Central Nervous System

consists of the brain and the spinal cord

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64

cerebellum

brain structure that controls well-learned motor activities like riding a bike

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65

cerebral cortex

the fabric of interconnecting cells that blankets the brain hemispheres; the brain's center for information processing and control

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66

chaining

using operant conditioning to teach a complex response by linking together less complex skills

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67

chunking

organizing units of information into manageable units such as memorizing a phone number as three groups of information 248-555-1212

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68

circadian rhythm

the daily biological rhythms that occur in a 24-hour period

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69

classical conditioning

method of learning in which a neutral stimulus can be used to elicit a response that is usually a natural response to a stimulus

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70

client-centered therapy

developed by Carl Rogers

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71

clinical

this type of psychologist studies

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72

cochlea

this coiled structure in the inner ear is fluid-filled and in it the energy from sound waves stimulate hair cells

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73

cognitive dissonance theory

this says that we will suffer discomfort and act to change the situation when our thoughts and actions seem to be inconsistent

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74

cognitive

perspective on psychology that stresses the importance of mental activities associated with thinking

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75

cognitive therapy

treatment for psychological disorders that centers on changing self-defeating thinking

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76

collective unconscious

Jung's theory that we all share an inherited memory that contains our culture's most basic elements

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77

color blindness

a variety of disorders marked by inability to distinguish some or all colors

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78

collectivist

this adjective describes cultures in which the individual is less important than the group

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79

concrete operations

Piaget's stage in which children learn such concepts as conservation and mathematical transformations; about 7 - 11 years of age

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80

concurrent validity

the extent to which two measures of the same trait or ability agree

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81

conditioned response

in classical conditioning

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82

conditioning

generally

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83

conduction

one type of hearing impairment caused by mechanical problems in the ear structures

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84

cones

neurons in the retina that are responsible for color vision

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85

confirmation bias

a tendency to search for information that supports one's preconceptions

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86

conformity

adjusting behavior to meet a group's standard

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87

confounding variable

extraneous factor that interferes with the action of the independent variable on the dependent variable

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88

consciousness

one's awareness of one's environment and oneself.

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89

consummate love

includes passion

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90

control group

subjects in an experiment who do not receive application of the independent variable but are measured nonetheless for the dependent variable

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91

convergent thinking

a type of critical thinking in which one evaluates existing possible solutions to a problem to choose the best one

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92

cornea

the transparent outer covering of the eye

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93

corpus callosum

the fibers that connect the right and left hemispheres

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94

correlation

the degree of relationship between two variables

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95

correlation coefficient

a positive one near 1.0 indicates two variable are positively related; a negative number indicates a negative relationship; zero indicates no relationship

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96

cross-sectional

type of study that measures a variable across several age groups at the same time

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97

debriefing

giving participants in a research study a complete explanation of the study after the study is completed

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98

defense mechanisms

Freud's processes by which individuals express uncomfortable emotions in disguised ways

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99

deindividuation

when an individual seems to lose himself or herself in the group's identity

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100

deinstitutionalization

moving people with psychological or developmental disabilities from highly structured institutions to home- or community-based settings

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